National Healthcare Agreement: PI 22–Healthcare associated infections: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, 2021
Identifying and definitional attributes
|Metadata item type:||Indicator|
|Indicator type:||Progress measure|
|Short name:||PI 22–Healthcare associated infections: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, 2021|
|Registration status:||Health, Standard 16/09/2020|
Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) associated with acute care public hospitals (excluding cases associated with private hospitals and non-hospital care).
|Indicator set:||National Healthcare Agreement (2021) Health, Standard 19/11/2020|
|Outcome area:||Hospital and Related Care Health, Standard 07/07/2010|
National Health Performance Authority (retired), Retired 01/07/2016
Collection and usage attributes
For the purpose of data collection, all types of public hospitals are included (as defined in the Local Hospital Networks/Public hospital establishments NMDS 2019–20), both those focusing on acute care, and those focusing on non-acute or sub-acute care, including psychiatric, rehabilitation and palliative care.
A patient-episode of SAB is defined as a positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus. For surveillance purposes, only the first isolate per patient is counted, unless at least 14 days has passed without a positive blood culture, after which an additional episode is recorded.
A Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia will be considered to be healthcare-associated if: the first positive blood culture is collected more than 48 hours after hospital admission or less than 48 hours after discharge, OR, if the first positive blood culture is collected less than or equal to 48 hours after admission to hospital and the patient-episode of SAB meets at least one of the following criteria:
Cases where a known previous positive test has been obtained within the last 14 days are excluded. For example, if a patient has SAB in which 4 sets of blood cultures are positive over the initial 3 days of the patient's admission, only one episode of SAB is recorded. If the same patient had a further set of positive blood cultures on day 6 of the same admission, these would not be counted again but would be considered part of the initial patient-episode.
Note: If the same patient had a further positive blood culture 20 days after admission (i.e. greater than 14 days after their last positive blood culture on day 5), then this would be considered a second patient-episode of SAB.
See Establishment—number of patient days, total N[N(7)] for the definition of patient days.
Unqualified newborns, hospital boarders and posthumous organ procurement are excluded from the denominator of the indicator.
Analysis by state and territory is based on location of the hospital.
Coverage: Denominator ÷ Number of patient days for all public hospitals in the state or territory.
Any variation from the specifications by jurisdictions will be footnoted and described in the data quality statement.
Numerator (number of cases)
10,000 x (Numerator ÷ Denominator) (cases per 10,000 patient days).
Number of SAB patient episodes (as defined above) associated with acute care public hospitals.
|Numerator data elements:|
Number of patient days for acute care public hospitals under surveillance (i.e. only for hospitals included in the surveillance arrangements).
Exclude unqualified newborns, posthumous organ procurement and hospital boarders.
|Denominator data elements:|
2018–19 (updated for resupplied data), 2019–20—State and territory, by:
Some disaggregation may result in numbers too small for publication.
|Disaggregation data elements:|
Most recent data available for 2021 National Healthcare Agreement performance reporting: 2019–20.
Patient days for unqualified newborns, hospital boarders and posthumous organ procurement are excluded.
Patient episodes associated with care provided by private hospitals and non-hospital health care are excluded.
Only episodes associated with acute care public hospital care in each jurisdiction should be counted. If a case is associated with care provided in another jurisdiction (cross border flows) then it is reported (where known) by the jurisdiction where the care associated with the SAB occurred.
There may be patient episodes of SAB identified by a hospital which did not originate in the identifying hospital (as determined by the definition of a patient episode of SAB), but in another public hospital. If the originating hospital is under SAB surveillance, then the patient episode of SAB should be attributed to the originating hospital and should be included as part of the indicator. If the originating hospital is not under SAB surveillance, then the patient episode is unable to be included in the indicator.
For the purpose of data collection, 'acute care public hospitals' refers to all types of public hospitals with SAB surveillance.
Variation in admission practices across jurisdictions will influence the denominator for this indicator impacting on comparability of rates.
Jurisdictional manuals should be referred to for full details of definitions used in infection control surveillance.
Note that the definition of a healthcare-associated SAB was revised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care in 2016. In particular, the clinical criterion for SAB associated with neutropenia was revised. Data for 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14 and 2014–15 are reported according to the previous neutropenia criterion:
Data for 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18, 2018–19 and 2019–20 are reported according to the new neutropenia criterion:
Note that patient episodes of SAB are just one type of healthcare associated infection. Hence, this performance indicator is not a complete measure of healthcare associated infections for the outcome area of Hospital and Related Care.
|Unit of measure:||Episode|
Indicator conceptual framework
|Framework and dimensions:||Safety|
Data source attributes
National Healthcare Agreement
|Organisation responsible for providing data:|
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
National Healthcare Agreement: PB g-Better health services: the rate of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) bacteraemia is no more than 2.0 per 10,000 occupied bed days for acute care public hospitals by 2011–12 in each state and territory, 2021
|Further data development / collection required:|
Specification: Substantial work required, the measure requires significant work to be undertaken.
|Related metadata references:|
See also Australian Health Performance Framework: PI 2.2.2–Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections, 2019 Health, Standard 09/04/2020
See also National Healthcare Agreement: PB g–Better health services: the rate of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) bacteraemia is no more than 2.0 per 10,000 occupied bed days for acute care public hospitals by 2011–12 in each state and territory, 2021 Health, Standard 16/09/2020
Supersedes National Healthcare Agreement: PI 22–Healthcare associated infections: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, 2020 Health, Standard 13/03/2020
Has been superseded by National Healthcare Agreement: PI 22–Healthcare associated infections: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, 2022 Health, Standardisation pending 20/07/2021
See also National Healthcare Agreement: PI 23–Unplanned hospital readmission rates, 2021 Health, Standard 19/11/2020
See also National Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia Data Collection, 2019–20: Quality Statement AIHW Data Quality Statements, Endorsed 23/02/2021