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Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for antimicrobials per 100,000 people, 2017-18

Identifying and definitional attributes

Metadata item type:Help on this termIndicator
Indicator type:Help on this termIndicator
Short name:Help on this termAntimicrobial dispensing, 2017-18
METeOR identifier:Help on this term723543
Registration status:Help on this termAustralian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Standard 22/09/2020
Description:Help on this term

Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for antimicrobials per 100,000 people, age-sex standardised.

Collection and usage attributes

Population group age from:Help on this term

All ages

Computation description:Help on this term

Inclusion codes, description and additional requirements

Alimentary tract and metabolism

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

A01AB

 

AMPHOTERICIN B

02931G, 03306B

03306B is a dental code

CHLORHEXIDINE

04161B,

04204G

RPBS items.

Not included in the specifications used for the Atlas 2015.

NYSTATIN

10854G

03033P, 03343Y - Delisted after 31 Dec 2015.

10854G (Listed from 1 July 2016 onwards).

03343Y is a dental code.

A02BD

 

ESOMEPRAZOLE (&) CLARITHROMYCIN (&) AMOXICILLIN

08738X, 10759G

10759G (Listed from 1 May 2016 onwards)

OMEPRAZOLE (&) CLARITHROMYCIN (&) AMOXICILLIN

08272J

Delisted after 31 Aug 2014

A07AA

NYSTATIN

01696G, 

01699K, 03342X, 03345C

03342X, 03345C are dental codes

RIFAXIMIN

10001J

Listed from 1 Dec 2013 onwards

VANCOMYCIN

03113W, 03114X

 

 

Dermatologicals

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

D01

 

AMOROLFINE

04010C

RPBS

CICLOPIROX

04106D

RPBS. Delisted after 31 August 2017

CLOTRIMAZOLE

04004R

RPBS

GRISEOFULVIN

01460W,

02982Y

 

KETOCONAZOLE

01574W, 04007X, 

09024Y, 09025B

04007X, 04008Y (RPBS).

04008Y (Delisted after 30 Nov 2016).

MICONAZOLE

03400Y, 04341L, 

04454K, 

09027D, 

09028E, 09029F, 09031H

04341L, 04454K (RPBS. Delisted after 30 Nov 2016)

 

NYSTATIN

01698J, 04001N

04001N (RPBS)

TERBINAFINE

02285G, 02804N, 04011D, 

04463X, 04473K, 09160D

04011D, 04463X, 04473K (RPBS)

TOLNAFTATE

04481W

RPBS

 

D06AX

MUPIROCIN

04348W, 04350Y

RPBS

D06BA

SILVER SULFADIAZINE

09479X

 

D11AX

DAPSONE

01272Y,

08801F

Include 01272Y, 08801F only for extraction 

 

Genitourinary System and Sex Hormones

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

G01AA

NYSTATIN

04013F

RPBS

G01AF

CLOTRIMAZOLE

04016J, 04017K

RPBS

 

Antiinfectives for systemic use (antibacterials)

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

J01

 

 

 

AMOXICILLIN

01884E, 01886G, 01887H, 01888J,

01889K, 03300Q, 03301R, 03302T, 03310F, 03393N, 05225B, 08581P,

08705E, 09714G

03300Q, 03301R, 03302T, 03310F, 03393N, 05225B are dental codes

AMOXICILLIN + CLAVULANIC ACID

01891M, 01892N, 05006L, 05008N, 05009P, 05011R, 08254K, 08319W

05006L, 05008N, 05009P, 05011R are dental codes

AMPICILLIN

02390T, 02977Q, 03313J, 03314K

03313J, 03314K are dental codes

AZITHROMYCIN

04115N, 05616N, 06221K, 08200N, 08201P, 08336R

 

BENZATHINE BENZYLPENICILLIN

02267H, 05027N

05027N is a dental code

BENZYLPENICILLIN

01775K, 02647H, 03398W, 03399X, 03486L, 

03487M

03398W, 03399X are dental codes. 03486L, 03487M are prescriber bag codes.

CEFACLOR

01169M, 02460L, 02461M, 05045M, 05046N, 05047P

05045M, 05046N, 05047P are dental codes

CEFEPIME

08315P, 08316Q

 

CEFOTAXIME

01085D, 01758M, 01759N, 01768C, 01769D, 05049R, 05048Q,

05049R

01768C, 01769D are dental codes.

01085D, 05048Q (delisted after 30 Sep 2017).

01086E, 05049R (delisted after 31 Dec 2015). 

CEFTRIAXONE

01783W,

01784X, 01785Y, 01788D, 09058R, 11169W

11169W (Listed from 1 Sep 2017 onwards)

 

CEFUROXIME

02002J, 05052X, 05499K, 08292K,

11191B, 11192C,

11227X,

11228Y

11191B, 11192C (Listed from 1 Nov 2017 onwards). 11227X, 11228Y (Listed from 1 Feb 2018 onwards). 

02002J, 05052X, 11191X, 11228Y are dental codes.

 

CEFALEXIN

02655R, 03058Y, 03094W, 03095X, 03119E, 

03317N, 03318P,
03319Q, 03320R, 10778G

10778G (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards). 03317N, 03318P, 03319Q, 03320R are dental codes.

CEFALOTIN

02964B, 03376Q

03376Q is a dental code

CEFAZOLIN

01256D, 01257E, 01797N, 01799Q, 05477G, 05478H, 05479J, 09326W

 

CIPROFLOXACIN

01208N, 01209P, 01210Q

 

CLARITHROMYCIN

05624B,  06152T, 08318T, 09192T

05625, 06151R (Delisted after 31 Dec 2015).

CLINDAMYCIN

03138E, 05057E

05057E is a dental code

DICLOXACILLIN

05096F, 05097G, 08121K, 08122L, 10790X

10790X (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards). 05096F, 05097G are dental codes.

DOXYCYCLINE

01800R, 02702F, 02703G, 02707L, 02708M, 02709N, 02711Q,
02714W, 02715X, 03321T, 03322W, 05082L, 09105F, 09106G,
09107H, 09108J, 10176N, 10777F,

10779H, 10781K

10176N (Listed from 1 Dec 2014 onwards)

10777F, 10779H, 10781K (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards). 03321T, 03322W, 05082L are dental codes.

ERYTHROMYCIN

01404X, 

03325B

10780J

01397M (Delisted after 30 Nov 2016). 03325B is a dental code.

10780J (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

ERYTHROMYCIN ETHYLSUCCINATE

02424N, 02428T, 02750R, 03334L, 03336N, 03337P, 10789W

10789W (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards). 03334L, 03336N, 03337P are dental codes.

FLUCLOXACILLIN

01525G, 01526H, 01527J, 

05090X, 05091Y, 05095E, 05257Q,
05258R, 09149M, 09150N, 10605E, 10609J, 10788T

01524F, 05094D (Delisted after 31 Dec 2016). 10605E, 10609J, (Listed from 1 Feb 2016 onwards).

10788T (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards).

FUSIDATE

02312Q, 10782L

10782L (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

GENTAMICIN

02824P

 

LINCOMYCIN

02530E, 05144R,

11366F,

11380Y

 

11366F, 11380Y (Listed from 1 Jun 2018 onwards). 

05144R, 11366F are dental codes.

 

METHENAMINE HIPPURATE

03124K

 

METRONIDAZOLE

01621H, 01630T, 01636D,  01642K, 01821W,

01832K,
03339R, 03341W,

05155H, 

05157K

01638F, 5154G (Delisted after 31 Jul 2014).

02277W, 02298Y (Delisted after 31 Dec 2016).

1821W, 1832K (Delisted after 31 Jan 2018). 03339R, 03341W, 05155H, 0515K are dental codes. 

 

MINOCYCLINE

01616C

 

NITROFURANTOIN

01692C, 01693D

 

NORFLOXACIN

03010K

 

PHENOXYMETHYLPENICILLIN

01703P, 

01705R, 

01787C, 

01789E,

02965C, 03028J, 03360W, 03361X, 03363B, 03364C, 05012T, 05024K, 05029Q, 08976K, 08977L, 09143F

03360W, 03361X, 03363B, 03364C, 05012T, 05024K, 05029Q are dental codes.

PROCAINE PENICILLIN

01794K, 

03371K, 03485K

03371K is a dental code. 03485K is a prescriber bag code. 

ROXITHROMYCIN

01760P, 05259T, 05260W, 05261X, 

08016X, 08129W

05259T, 05260W, 05261X are dental codes. 

TICARCILLIN + CLAVULANIC ACID

 10113G, 10125X

02179Q, 05230G (Delisted after 31 Jul 2014). 

10113G, 10125X (Listed from 1 Aug 2014 to 31 Jan 2018).

TINIDAZOLE

01465D

 

TOBRAMYCIN

01356J, 05442K, 08872Y,
09480Y, 10066T, 10074F

 

TRIMETHOPRIM

02666H, 02922T, 10785P

10785P (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

TRIMETHOPRIM + SULFAMETHOXAZOLE

02951H, 03103H, 

03390K, 

03391L, 10784N

10784N (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards). 03390K, 03391L are dental codes.

VANCOMYCIN

02269K, 02270L, 03130R, 03131T, 03323X, 05083M

 03323X, 05083M are dental codes.

J02

FLUCONAZOLE

01471K, 01472L, 01473M, 01474N, 01475P,

01757L, 05446P,

11139G

11139G (Listed from 1 Jul 2017 onwards).

ITRACONAZOLE

08196J, 10732W

10732W (Listed from 1 Apr 2016 onwards).

POSACONAZOLE

09360P, 10460M

10460M (Listed from 1 Sep 2015 onwards).

VORICONAZOLE

09363T, 09364W, 09452L, 10168E, 10173K, 10198R

10168E, 10173K, 10198R (Listed from 1 Dec 2014 onwards).

J04

ISONIAZID

01554T

 

Not included in the specifications used for the Atlas 2015

 

RIFABUTIN

06195C, 

09541E

 

 

RIFAMPICIN

01981G, 01982H, 

01983J, 

01984K, 

08025J

 

 

 

Respiratory

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

R01AX06

MUPIROCIN

09440W

 

 

Sensory (Ophthalmologicals & Otologicals)

 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

S01AA

CHLORAMPHENICOL

01171P, 02360F, 05055C, 05511C, 05512D, 11112W

01171P, 02360F, 05055C, 05511C, 05512D (Delisted after 31 Dec 2015)

11112W (Listed from 1 May 2017 onwards)

GENTAMICIN

01441W, 

05566Y

05566Y is an optometry code

TOBRAMYCIN

02328M, 02329N, 05569D, 05570E

05569D, 05570D are optometry codes.

S01AE

 

CIPROFLOXACIN

01217C, 

05564W

05564W is an optometry code.

OFLOXACIN

05567B, 08383F

05567B is an optometry code.

S02AA

CHLORAMPHENICOL

 

01172Q  (Delisted 31 May 2015)

 

CIPROFLOXACIN

02480M

 

S02CA

 

FRAMYCETIN SULFATE + GRAMICIDIN

+DEXAMETHASONE

02781J

 

 

TRIAMCINOLONE+ NEOMYCIN SULFATE +GRAMICIDIN+ NYSTATIN

02971J, 02974M  

S03AA

FRAMYCETIN SULFATE

01440T, 05557L

05557L is an optometry code

Persented as the following rates:

a. number of prescriptions per 100,000 people

b. number of patients per 100,000 people

c. number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 people per day  

 

Rates are directly age-sex standardised, to the 2001 Australian population, using 5-year age groups: 0-4, 5-9, … , 80-84, 85 and over.

For more information about age-standardisation in general see Glossary item Age-standardised rate.

 

A patient’s age is calculated in years as the difference between the patient’s date of birth and date of supply for the prescription. Date of birth and sex are as reported on a patient’s last prescription for any drug, extracted on 24/10/2019.

Prescriptions are allocated to a financial year based on the date the medicine was supplied to the patient. For example for 2017–18, the date of supply is between 1 July 2017 and 30 June 2018.  

Analysis by Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3) 2016 is based on the patient's enrolment postcode as last reported by the patient to Medicare, valid at date of supply.

Suppress data (number and rate) if at least one of the following conditions are met:

​​​• the total denominator is less than 1,000

• the total numerator is less than 20.

Age-sex standardised rates are also suppressed where the denominator for at least one of the age-sex groups used to calculate the rate is below 30 and results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the rates are volatile. However, for SA3 data, if the volatility of the rate is not found to have a material impact on its decile, the rate is published with caution. For more information about the sensitivity analysis, see the Technical supplement of the Third Atlas.

Computation:Help on this term

      (a), (b)  [Numerator ÷ Denominator] x 100,000

      (c) ([Numerator x 1,000] ÷ [Denominator x 365])

Numerator:Help on this term

For 2017-18:

1. Number of antimicrobial prescriptions dispensed

2. Number of patients dispensed at least one antimicrobial prescription

3. Number of DDD of antimicrobial medicines dispensed [mass amount x quantity dispensed  ÷ DDD amount]

Numerator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code, ANN(AANN)


Data Source
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—PBS item prescribed, code NN[NNN]A
Data Source
Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) data
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetPerson—sex, code A
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetPerson—date of birth, DDMMYYYY
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—patient identifier, identifier N(9)
Data Source
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—date of supply, DDMMYYYY
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—mass amount, N(14.5)


Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—quantity of PBS item supplied, total number N[NNN]
Guide for use

PBS and RPBS data 2017-18 extracted on 24/10/2019.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetData Element

Data Element / Data Set:
Defined daily dose amount, N(3.3)
Data Source:
WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology


Denominator:Help on this term

As at 30 June 2017:

(a), (b), (c)  Total population

Denominator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetPerson—estimated resident population of Australia, total people N[N(7)]
Data Source
ABS Australian Demographic Statistics
Data Element / Data SetData Source
ABS Regional Population by Age and Sex, Australia
Guide for use

Data source type: Census based plus administrative by-product data


Disaggregation:Help on this term

(a) SA3 2016 by:

- remoteness (ASGS Remoteness structure 2016) and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA 2016) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD 2016)

Primary Health Network (PHN) 2017

State and territory

 

(b) State and territory

(c) State and territory

Disaggregation data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetAddress—Australian postcode, code (Postcode datafile) NNNN
Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) Pharmacy claim script detail


Guide for use

GPO postcodes 2001, 2124, 3001, 4001, 5001, 6843 excluded from the SA3 and PHN level analysis but included in state/territory and national level analysis.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Used for disaggregation by Statistical Area Level 3.


Data Element / Data SetAddress—statistical area, level 3 (SA3) code (ASGS 2011) NNNNN

Representational attributes

Representation class:Help on this termRate
Data type:Help on this termInteger
Unit of measure:Help on this termService event
Format:Help on this term

a) Prescription event b) Person c) Defined Daily Dose    

NN[NNNN]

Data source attributes

Data sources:Help on this term
Data SourcePharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data
Frequency
Monthly
Data custodian

Australian Government Department of Human Services



Data SourceRepatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) data
Frequency
Monthly
Data custodian

Australian Government Department of Human Services



Data SourceABS Australian Demographic Statistics
Frequency
Quarterly
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics



Data SourceABS Regional Population by Age and Sex, Australia
Frequency
Annually
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics


Accountability attributes

Methodology:Help on this term

Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3s) are geographic areas defined in the ABS Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). The aim of SA3s is to create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of SA2s that have similar regional characteristics. There are 340 spatial SA3s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are designed to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. SA3s generally have a population of between 30,000 and 130,000 people. There are approximately 78 with fewer than 30,000 people and 46 with more than 130,000 as at 30 June 2016. The Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island are each represented by a SA3 in the 2016 ASGS. For further information see the ABS publication, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2016. ABS. cat. no. 3235.0.

The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an internationally accepted classification for presenting and comparing drug usage data. Since 1982, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), located in Norway, has been the central body responsible for coordinating ATC use. Note that the ATC codes used in this specification are from the Australian Department of Health’s version of the WHO ATC classifications, which have some minor differences from the WHO version, based upon a particular drug’s usage in Australia. The Department of Health’s ATC version is available at http://www.pbs.gov.au/browse/body-system

Further information on DDD/1,000/day is available at http://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/medicines-safety/toolkit_indicators/en/index1.html.

DDD amounts are available at https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/

Reporting requirements:Help on this term

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Australian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2020

Organisation responsible for providing data:Help on this term

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Accountability:Help on this term

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Release date:Help on this term14/10/2020

Source and reference attributes

Submitting organisation:Help on this term

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Relational attributes

Related metadata references:Help on this term

See also ABS Estimated resident population (total population), QS Health, Standard 08/06/2011

See also Australian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018: Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for antimicrobials per 100,000 people, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Standard 13/12/2018

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