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1. Effectiveness

721641 | Framework Dimension
Health care is broadly regarded as ‘effective’ when it achieves the desired outcomes for patients, clinicians and the community. Effective health care may include public health programs such as national immunisation schedules and cancer screening. It may also include improvements to health standards and primary care that lead to fewer hospital admissions and deaths.

1. Health conditions

721649 | Framework Dimension
Health conditions such as low birthweight, cancer, diabetes, infections, injury or psychological distress can impose significant costs on society in terms of health system use, days off work because of illness or to care for people who are ill, and reduced quality of life. The incidence and prevalence of conditions across the community can provide an overall picture of the health of the community, representing the outcomes of all the factors that shape our health.

1. Socioeconomic factors

721636 | Framework Dimension
Socioeconomic factors —such as income, employment, housing and education—can affect a person’s health. People who are disadvantaged in one or more of these areas may have difficulty accessing health care, and this may in turn impact on their overall health and wellbeing.

2. Health behaviours

721637 | Framework Dimension
A person’s health is influenced by their behaviours. The impact of many health problems experienced by Australians could be reduced or prevented entirely by changing behaviours related to such things as tobacco smoking, being overweight or obese, high alcohol use, physical inactivity and high blood pressure. These indicators focus on behaviours that are known to put a person’s health at risk.

2. Human function

721650 | Framework Dimension
Chronic diseases, residual injuries, permanent damage or defects from birth can impair how well a person functions day to day. How people experience and cope with a disability can be greatly affected by the opportunities and services provided for them. Human function can be measured by alterations to body structure or function (impairment), activity limitations and restrictions in participation. Severe or profound core activity limitation can be measured by calculating the percentage of people w...

2. Safety

721642 | Framework Dimension
Health care safety is measured by how effectively harm, or the risk of harm, to patients is minimised; for example, by measuring the frequency of healthcare-related infections (such as Staphylococcus aureus, or ‘golden staph’) or rate of seclusion in mental health services. By avoiding or reducing the risk of harm in the health system, adverse or unanticipated events in hospital can be prevented.

3. Appropriateness

721644 | Framework Dimension
Healthcare is considered ‘appropriate’ when it puts the patient’s needs and expectations first and is culturally appropriate. In addition, consumers are treated with dignity, confidentiality and encouraged to participate in choices related to their care. Appropriate healthcare may be measured by patient reported experiences (PREMs). Indicators within this dimension will be included in future releases of the AHPF.

3. Personal biomedical factors

721638 | Framework Dimension
Personal biomedical factors, such as blood pressure and blood glucose levels, carry both short and long term risks for health. These are often influenced by health behaviours, such as diet and exercise, and social factors, such as financial stress or occupational stress. These indicators focus on biomedical factors that are known to put a person’s health at risk.

3. Wellbeing

721651 | Framework Dimension
Physical, mental and social wellbeing is affected by an individual’s perceptions, emotions and behaviour as well as their ease of movement and levels of any discomfort. Mental health is fundamental to the wellbeing of individuals, their families and the community as a whole. Wellbeing can be measured by self-assessed health status and the prevalence of psychological distress in the population.

4. Continuity of care

721645 | Framework Dimension
Continuity of care is the ability to provide uninterrupted care or service across programs, practitioners and levels over time. This can be measured by indicators such as unplanned hospital readmission rates.

4. Deaths

721652 | Framework Dimension
It is important to examine trends and patterns in life expectancy, mortality rates in infants and children, deaths due to suicide and major causes of death. This can help evaluate health strategies and guide policy-making. Examining causes of death provides further insight into the events contributing to deaths, reflecting changes in behaviours, exposures to disease or injury, social and environmental circumstances, data coding practices as well as impacts of medical and technological advances.

4. Environmental factors

721639 | Framework Dimension
Physical, chemical and biological factors in the environment such as water, food and soil quality can impact our health and wellbeing. Healthy workplaces, safe water, clean air, safe houses, communities and roads are integral for good health. Future releases of the AHPF will include indicators that report on environmental factors.

5. Accessibility

721646 | Framework Dimension
Health care is considered ‘accessible’ when it is available at the right place and time, taking account of different population needs and the affordability of care. Accessibility of the health system can be measured by patient waiting times and bulk-billing rates for general practitioners (GPs).

6. Efficiency & Sustainability

721647 | Framework Dimension
Health care is considered efficient when the right care is delivered at minimum cost. One way efficiency can be measured is by the cost per hospital separation. A sustainable health system maintains, renews and innovates resources to continually improve efficiency and respond to emerging needs. Net growth in the health workforce is an indicator of sustainability of the health care system.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework

410647 | Framework Dimension
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework (HPF) provides a framework to monitor progress against the National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health 2003 to 2013. The Health Performance Framework monitors progress of the health system and broader determinants of health in improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health. The HPF comprises three tiers of performance as follows:

Acceptability

392632 | Framework Dimension
All care/services provided meet the expectation s of the client, community, providers and payment organisations, recognizing that there may be conflicting, competing interests between stakeholders and that the needs of the clients/patients are paramount.

Access

392711 | Framework Dimension
Equity indicators measure how well a service is meeting the needs of certain groups in society with special needs. Indicators may reflect both equity of access, whereby all Australians are expected to have adequate access to services, and equity of outcome, whereby all Australians are expected to achieve similar service outcomes.

Access

392717 | Framework Dimension
Access indicators measure how easily the community can obtain a service. Access has two main dimensions, undue delay (timeliness) and undue cost (affordability). Timeliness indicators can include waiting times (for example, in public hospitals and for aged care services). Affordability indicators relate to the proportion of income spent on particular services (for example, out-of-pocket expenses in children's services).

Accessibility

392631 | Framework Dimension
The ability of clients/patients to obtain care/service at the right place and the right time, based on respective needs. Examples include waiting times, practice availability and availability of dentists.

Accessibility

721203 | Framework Dimension
People can obtain health care at the right place and right time, taking account of different population needs and the affordability of care.

Accessibility

392591 | Framework Dimension
People can obtain health care at the right place and time irrespective of income, physical location and cultural background.

Accessibility

401189 | Framework Dimension
People can obtain health care at the right place and the right time, irrespective of income, physical location and cultural background.

Accessible

410683 | Framework Dimension
Ability of people to obtain health care at the right place and right time irrespective of income, cultural background or physical location.

Accessible

584868 | Framework Dimension
Ability of people to obtain health care at the right place and right time irrespective of income, geography and cultural background

Adequacy of benefits of last resort

392691 | Framework Dimension
Compared to after-tax incomes from employment, net incomes of benefit recipients measure the financial incentives to take up work for those without a job. When compared to the income cutting off points that are used to identify poor families, they inform about the capacity of benefit systems to ensure an adequate standard of living.

Age of labour force exit

392675 | Framework Dimension
Retirement is associated with cessation of work and receipt of a pension. Actual retirement ages are difficult to measure directly without internationally comparable longitudinal data, so international comparisons must rely on indirect measures from cross-sectional data. Indirect measures regard persons above a specified age as "retired" if they are not in the labour force at the time of a survey.

Appropriate

584871 | Framework Dimension
The care, intervention or action provided is relevant to the consumer’s and/or carer’s needs and based on established standards

Appropriateness

392716 | Framework Dimension
Appropriateness indicators measure how well services meet client needs. An appropriateness indicator for the Supported Accommodation and Assistance Program, for example, is the proportion of clients receiving the services that they are assessed as needing. Appropriateness indicators also seek to identify the extent of any underservicing or overservicing (Renwick and Sadkowsky 1991). Some services have developed measurable standards of service need against which the current levels of service can ...

Appropriateness

721198 | Framework Dimension
Service is a person-centred, culturally appropriate, rights-based, trauma-informed and recovery oriented. Mental health consumers and carers are treated with dignity and confidentiality and encouraged to participate in choices related to their care. Consumers and carers report positive experiences (PROMs & PREMs).

Appropriateness

392630 | Framework Dimension
Care/service is relevant to the clients/patients' needs and based on established standards. Examples include inappropriately used surgery, appropriate use of ACEI at discharge for heart failure.

Australian Health Performance Framework

721590 | Framework Dimension
The Australian Health Performance Framework supersedes both the National Health Performance Framework and the Performance and Accountability Framework (PAF). The Australian Health Performance Framework (868KB PDF) (the AHPF) provides a navigation tool to support reporting on Australia’s health and health care performance. It supersedes the National Health Performance Framework and the Performance and Accountability Framework and should have primacy over other sector-specific frameworks. It is i...

Autonomy and participation

392703 | Framework Dimension
Autonomy and participation are considered to be essential indicators of welfare, and reflect the very human and personal aspects of individuality, and workplace and community interactions that are vital to positive wellbeing. Data relating to autonomy the capacity to have freedom of opportunity and choice in daily living and participation in the community provide information on personal and environmental factors that make up welfare. Further sub-dimensions are autonomy and participation: educati...

Better physical health and living longer

695657 | Framework Dimension

Bio-medical factors

392578 | Framework Dimension
Genetic-related susceptibility to disease and other factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels and body weight.

Bullying

392666 | Framework Dimension
Bullying includes hitting and teasing, as well as more passive forms such as exclusion from conversations and play. Bullying does not include fighting between equally strong children. The broad definition of bullying does not show which forms are most prevalent in which country, or the duration and intensity of bullying. Data are drawn from school-based samples from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Bullying estimates are calculated using reported rates of bullying and being ...

Capable

410685 | Framework Dimension
An individual or service’s capacity to provide a health service based on skills and knowledge.

Capable

584863 | Framework Dimension
An individual or service’s capacity to provide a health service based on skills and knowledge

Childcare

392674 | Framework Dimension
Childcare enrolment rates for children aged 0-2 years include enrolment in formal arrangements such as childcare centres, registered child minders, as well as care provided by someone who is not a family member. Enrolment rates for children aged 3-5 years refer to those enrolled in formal pre-school services, and in some countries for children aged 4-5 years in primary schools.

Community and civic engagement

392697 | Framework Dimension
Community and civic engagement can be expressed in various ways, such as being involved in the community or political life, or through volunteering. Community and civic engagement not only allows individuals to have a say in the future direction of their communities but also promotes a cohesive network of people from various backgrounds. The networks formed within the confines of civic engagement are often seen as more formal than those that exist through family and friends. Due to the nature of...

Community and health system characteristics

392638 | Framework Dimension
The dimension of community and health system characteristics contains contextual information which may be useful in interpretation of indicators.

Community and socioeconomic

392581 | Framework Dimension
Community factors such as social capital, support services, and socioeconomic factors such as housing, education, employment and income.

Community and socioeconomic factors

401183 | Framework Dimension
Community factors, such as, social capital, support services, family function and environment, and socioeconomic factors, such as, housing, education, employment and income.

Community Capacity

584855 | Framework Dimension
Characteristics of communities and families such as population density, age distribution, health literacy, housing, community support services and transport

Community Capacity

410675 | Framework Dimension
Characteristics of communities and families such as population density, age distribution, health literacy, housing, community support services and transport.

Competence

392629 | Framework Dimension
An individual's knowledge and skills are appropriate to the care/service being provided.

Continuity

392628 | Framework Dimension
The ability to provide uninterrupted coordinated care/service across programs, practitioners, organisations, and levels of care/service, overtime.

Continuity of Care

392588 | Framework Dimension
Ability to provide uninterrupted, coordinated care or service across programs, practitioners, organisations and levels over time.

Continuity of care

721201 | Framework Dimension
Ability to provide uninterrupted and integrated care or service across program, practitioners and levels over time. Coordination mechanisms work for mental health consumers, carers and health care providers. Care and support is holistic and includes psychosocial and physical dimensions.

Continuity of care

401190 | Framework Dimension
Ability to provide uninterrupted, coordinated care or service across programs, practitioners, organisations and levels over time.

Continuous

410684 | Framework Dimension
The ability to provide uninterrupted, coordinated care or service across programs,practitioners, organisations and levels over time.

Continuous

584864 | Framework Dimension
Ability to provide uninterrupted, coordinated care or service across programs, practitioners, organisations and levels over time

Crime victimisation

392665 | Framework Dimension
Crime comparisons between countries can be made via surveys designed to assess experience with actual criminal victimisation. Crime statistics are based on the 2005 International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS). The ICVS focuses on ten types of "conventional" crimes. Respondents are asked about victimisation by these conventional crimes that they themselves or their households experienced. These crimes cover vehicle-related crimes, burglary, theft of personal property, and contact crimes.

Deaths

392637 | Framework Dimension
A range of age-specific and condition specific mortality rates, as well as derived indicators. Examples include infant mortality, life expectancy, potential years of life lost, circulatory deaths, unintentional injury deaths.

Deaths

401178 | Framework Dimension
Mortality rates and life expectancy measures.

Deaths

392575 | Framework Dimension
Mortality rates and life expectancy measures.

Deaths

584829 | Framework Dimension
Age or condition specific mortality rates.

Deaths

721239 | Framework Dimension
Mortality rates, mortality gap and life expectancy measures.

Deaths

410671 | Framework Dimension
Age and/or condition specific mortality rates.

Determinants of health

721209 | Framework Dimension
Are the factors that influence good health changing for the better? Where and for who are these factors changing? Is it the same for everyone?

Domain 1 – Determinants of health

721635 | Framework Dimension
Are the factors determining good health changing for the better? Where and for whom are these factors changing? Is it the same for everyone? This domain takes into account factors that influence the health status and health care needs of Australians. Factors within this domain may be external to the traditional view of the health system. Reporting of health determinants in relation to the performance of the health system highlights the need for services within the health system and also the nee...

Domain 1- Health status

392570 | Framework Dimension
How healthy are Australians? Is it the same for everyone? Where is the most opportunity for improvement?

Domain 2 - Determinants of health

392576 | Framework Dimension
Are the factors determining good health changing for the better? Where and for whom are these factors changing? Is it the same for everyone.

Domain 2 – Health system

721640 | Framework Dimension
Is the health system (by itself, and with others) working to prevent illness, injury and disease? Is it delivering safe, effective, and accessible coordinated care appropriate for each individual? Is the health system efficient and sustainable? This domain captures the activities and qualities of the health care system. It can be applied across all sectors, settings and organisational levels, as needed. The dimensions identified within this domain highlight the need for health care delivery to b...

Domain 3 - Health system performance

392582 | Framework Dimension
How does the health system perform ? What is the level of quality of care across the range of patient care needs? Is it the same for everyone? Does the system deliver value for money and is it sustainable.

Domain 3 – Health status

721648 | Framework Dimension
How healthy are Australians? Is it the same for everyone? What are the best opportunities for improvement? The health status domain reflects the status of individuals, cohorts and populations in terms of conditions, functioning and well-being. It includes impairments, disabilities and handicaps that are a consequence of disease. Health can be measured and described, for example, by the incidence and prevalence of conditions across the community, providing an overall picture of the health of the ...

Domain 4 – Health system context

721653 | Framework Dimension
This domain reflects the importance of broad contextual issues of demographics, community and social capital, governance and structure, financing, workforce and infrastructure. It also includes issues of information, research and evidence to influence decisions and actions at all levels and across all sectors. These issues provide essential context for current decisions at all levels and are key issues for the planning of a sustainable health system. Indicators within this domain will be include...

Economic resources and security

392708 | Framework Dimension
The material standard of living enjoyed by individual Australians primarily depends on their command of economic resources, both in the immediate and long term. Economic factors are related to all aspects of the welfare framework, including health, education, employment and social networks. Indicators to describe the economic wellbeing of Australians . While income data are the most commonly reported measures of economic status, an individual's income can fluctuate dramatically across different ...

Education and knowledge

392707 | Framework Dimension
Education and knowledge help to empower individuals and allow them to become more autonomous within society. Education is increasingly viewed as a lifelong process by which both individuals and their communities benefit from the acquisition of new knowledge and skills. Education relates to many other facets of society, including employment, health and participation in the civic, cultural and social life of communities. Three major indicators of education and knowledge are : participation, attain...

Effective

584872 | Framework Dimension
Care, intervention or action achieves desired outcome

Effective support, care and treatment

695660 | Framework Dimension

Effective/Appropriate/Efficient

410681 | Framework Dimension
Effective: Care, intervention or action achieves the desired outcome. Appropriate: Care, intervention or action provided is relevant to the client’s needs and based on established standards. Efficient: Achieve desired results with most cost effective use of resources.

Effectiveness

392627 | Framework Dimension
The care/service, intervention or action achieves the desired result. Examples include cancer survival, recurrence of hernia after repair, smoking cessation during pregnancy (effectiveness of maternal health care), chronic care management: admission rates for asthma, diabetes, epilepsy.

Effectiveness

401194 | Framework Dimension
Care/intervention/action provided is relevant to the client’s needs and based on established standards. Care, intervention or action achieves the desired outcome.

Effectiveness

392587 | Framework Dimension
Care/intervention/action provided is relevant to the client's needs and based on established standards. Care, intervention or action achieves desired outcome.

Effectiveness

392713 | Framework Dimension
Effectiveness indicators measure how well the outputs of a service achieve the stated objectives of that service. The reporting framework groups effectiveness indicators according to characteristics that are considered important to the service. Characteristics include access, appropriateness and/or quality.

Effectiveness

721196 | Framework Dimension
Care, intervention or action achieves the desired outcome from both the clinical perspective (clinician-reported outcome measure–CROMs) and the mental health consumer and carer perspective (patient-reported outcome measures–PROMs). Care provided is based on evidence-based standards.

Efficiency

392626 | Framework Dimension
Achieving the desired results with the most cost-effective use of resources. Examples include avoidable hospitalizations, cost per casemix-adjusted separation, cost-effective prescribing.

Efficiency

392712 | Framework Dimension
The concept of efficiency has a number of dimensions. Overall economic efficiency requires satisfaction of technical, allocative and dynamic efficiency: technical efficiency requires that goods and services be produced at the lowest possible cost allocative efficiency requires the production of the set of goods and services that consumers value most, from a given set of resources dynamic efficiency means that, over time, consumers are offered new and better products, and existing products at ...

Efficiency & Sustainability

392586 | Framework Dimension
Achieving desired results with cost effective use of resources. Capacity of system to sustain workforce and infrastructure, to innovate and respond to emerging needs.

Efficiency and sustainability

401185 | Framework Dimension
Achieving desired results with most cost-effective use of resources. Capacity of system to sustain workforce and infrastructure, to innovate and respond to emerging needs.

Efficiency and sustainability

721208 | Framework Dimension
The right care is delivered at minimum cost and human and physical capital and technology are maintained and renewed while innovation occurs to improve efficiency and respond to emerging needs. Members of the workforce receive appropriate support and report positive experiences.

Efficient

584870 | Framework Dimension
Achieving desired results with most cost effective use of resources

Employment

392673 | Framework Dimension
A person is employed if working for pay, profit or family gain for at least one hour per week, even if temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays or industrial disputes. The data from labour force surveys of OECD countries rely on this definition during a survey reference week. The basic indicator for employment is the proportion of the working-age population aged 15-64 who are employed.

Employment and labour force participation

392706 | Framework Dimension
Employment provides avenues for income and as such is a major factor influencing material wellbeing. In addition, employment is strongly related to other aspects of the welfare framework. It is recognised as an integral part of adult participation in society, providing individuals with opportunities for personal development and social interaction. Indicators include: Labour force participation and employment Employment basis and conditions Employment and labour force differentials

Environmental factors

392623 | Framework Dimension
Environmental factors with the potential to influence human health. Examples include water quality.

Environmental Factors

410692 | Framework Dimension
Physical, chemical and biological factors such as air, water, food and soil quality resulting from chemical pollution and waste disposal.

Environmental factors

392580 | Framework Dimension
Physical, chemical and biological factors such as air, water, food and soil quality.

Environmental Factors

584858 | Framework Dimension
Physical, chemical and biological factors such as air, water, food and soil quality resulting from chemical pollution and waste disposal

Environmental factors

401184 | Framework Dimension
Physical, chemical and biological factors, such as, air, water, food and soil quality.

Environmental factors

721219 | Framework Dimension
Physical, chemical and biological factors such as water, food and soil quality.

Equity

392685 | Framework Dimension
Equity is a concept relevant to a broad range of outcomes, such as income, health, and education. But few of the equity measures currently available have broad country coverage, good comparability, and are available at regular intervals.

Equity

392710 | Framework Dimension
Equity indicators imeasure how well a service is meeting the needs of certain groups in society with special needs. Indicators may reflect both equity of access, whereby all Australians are expected to have adequate access to services, and equity of outcome, whereby all Australians are expected to achieve similar service outcomes. Equity is an important concept in economic literature, with two elements: horizontal equity the equal treatment of equals vertical equity the unequal but equitable...

Family formation and functioning

392696 | Framework Dimension
Families are the core unit of society in which people are supported and cared for and social values are developed. The role of each member within a family can be affected by changes in family situations and changes in the formation of the family itself. How well families function is a key factor in their ability to nurture personal wellbeing and serve as the basis for a cohesive society. The structure of Australian families has undergone considerable transformation over recent years, reflecting ...

Fifth National Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Plan Framework

695652 | Framework Dimension
The Fifth Plan framework provides a framework to monitor progress against agreed outcomes and performance indicators from the Fifth National Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Plan. The Fifth Plan framework stems from the National Mental Health Commission’s 2014 National Review of Mental Health Programmes and Services, which was developed in partnership with mental health consumers and carers, and takes a person-centred approach to national performance reporting.

Food, water and air

392702 | Framework Dimension
Living in an environment free from harmful levels of pollution, with access to safe drinking water and nutritious food, are fundamental needs of healthy living. These basic requirements greatly influence the health and wellbeing of individuals and communities. The indicators presented in this section represent key issues relating to the opportunities, constraints and choices that face Australians as they seek to lead healthy lives.

Genetic factors

392622 | Framework Dimension
Factors outside those normally influenced by individual behaviours or by the social, economic or physical environment; genetic factors determine predisposition to certain conditions. Examples include rate of genetically determined diseases.

Good mental health and wellbeing

695658 | Framework Dimension

Health

392676 | Framework Dimension
The links between social and health conditions are strong. Indeed, growth in living standards and education, accompanied by better access to health care and continuing progress in medical technology, has contributed to significant improvements in health status, as measured by life expectancy. Equally important and supplementary to measures of life expectancy are people's self-assessed perceptions of their state of health. The two main dimensions of health status are mortality and morbidity.

Health

392701 | Framework Dimension
Health has been defined as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity' (WHO 1946). As a part of the welfare framework, good health represents quality of life in terms of longevity, functioning and participation, all of which play an important role in everyday living. Further subdimensions that represent different aspects of health are; Life expectancy, Expected years of life lived with disability, Infant mortality, Mental health...

Health behaviours

392579 | Framework Dimension
Attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and behaviours, such as patterns of eating, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption.

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