Identifying and definitional attributes
|Metadata item type:||Indicator|
|Short name:||PI 11-Percentage of students at or above the national minimum standard in reading, writing and numeracy for Years 3, 5, 7 and 9, 2020|
|Registration status:||Indigenous, Endorsed 23/08/2019|
There are two measures for this indicator, both to be reported by Indigenous status:
(a) The proportion of students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 who achieved at or above the national minimum standard for reading, writing and numeracy.
(b) The proportion of students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 who participated (includes all assessed and exempt students) in national testing.
Early educational experiences are important as they influence future academic performance. Students who do not attain the national reading, writing and numeracy benchmark standards are less likely to progress from Year 9 to Year 12 or equivalent attainment, to enter higher education and have lower employment prospects. Indigenous students have lower literacy and numeracy attainment than non-Indigenous students. This is a key indicator in measuring the Closing the Gap target 'Halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade (by 2018)'.
|Indicator set:||National Indigenous Reform Agreement (2020) Indigenous, Endorsed 23/08/2019|
|Outcome area:||Indigenous students meet basic literacy and numeracy standards and overall levels of literacy and numeracy are improving Indigenous, Endorsed 21/07/2010|
Collection and usage attributes
There is no discrete numerator and denominator for this measure. See National Assessment Program—Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) reports (ACARA 2019) for more detail.
NAPLAN reports the percentage of students who achieved at or above the national minimum standard across five areas: reading, numeracy, persuasive writing, spelling, and grammar and punctuation. The complex process by which student scores are arrived at and distributed across the national achievement bands (using the Rasch model, a recognised analysis model for educational measurement) are agreed by states, territories and the Australian Government and endorsed by the then NAPLAN Expert Advisory Group. Due to the complexities of the methodology, it is not possible (with the data currently provided) to give a simple computation of the precise number of students at or above the national minimum standard, which is best reported in the bands designed for that purpose.
Presentation: per 100 (percentage).
Proportion of exempt, absent and withdrawn students are to be reported as separate categories.
Proportions are calculated using an interpolation process. They are not simply the numerator ÷ denominator as the computation is more complex than this. See NAPLAN reports (ACARA 2019) for more detail.
100 x (Numerator ÷ Denominator).
Number of students (assessed and exempt) in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 who participated in NAPLAN reading, writing and numeracy tests.
|Numerator data elements:|
Measure (b) only:
Total number of students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 (including absent and withdrawn).
|Denominator data elements:|
Measure (a) and (b):
For each Year level (Years 3, 5, 7 and 9— reported individually) by learning domain (reading, writing and numeracy— reported individually): National and state/territory by Indigenous status, by geo-location.
Data also reported on the proportion of students exempt, absent and withdrawn, by Indigenous status, by state/territory.
|Disaggregation data elements:|
Most recent data available for the 2020 National Indigenous Reform Agreement (NIRA) Report are for two years: 2018 and 2019.
For pre-2016 data, geo-location was determined based on the Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (MCEECDYA) geographical location classification. For data between 2016 and 2018, geo-location is determined based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2011 and reported for the 5 remoteness categories, resulting in a break in time-series from the pre-2016 data. For data from 2019, geo-location is determined based on the ASGS 2016.
Participation rates disaggregated by state/territory were reported for Indigenous students and all students in the (2008–09) baseline Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Reform Council report. Rates for non-Indigenous students are reported in the 2009–10 report onwards.
Exempt, absent and withdrawn students are reported separately in the 2010–11 report onwards.
Baseline year for the COAG Closing the Gap target (Halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade) is 2008; baseline year for this indicator is 2008; target year is 2018.
The term ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’ is preferred when referring to the separate Indigenous peoples of Australia. However, the term ‘Indigenous’ is used interchangeably with ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’ in this indicator to assist readability.
|Unit of measure:||Person|
Indicator conceptual framework
|Framework and dimensions:||Socioeconomic Factors|
Data source attributes
National Indigenous Reform Agreement
|Organisation responsible for providing data:|
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Source and reference attributes
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
|Steward:||National Indigenous Reform Agreement Performance Information Management Group|
ACARA (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority) 2019. National Assessment Program, National Report for 2018. Sydney: ACARA. Viewed 26 July 2019, http://www.nap.edu.au/results-and-reports/national-reports.
|Related metadata references:|
Supersedes National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 11-Percentage of students at or above the national minimum standard in reading, writing and numeracy for Years 3, 5, 7 and 9, 2019 Indigenous, Archived 23/08/2019