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Australian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018: Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for opioid medicines per 100,000 population, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17

Identifying and definitional attributes

Metadata item type:Help on this termIndicator
Indicator type:Help on this termIndicator
Short name:Help on this termOpioid dispensing, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17
METeOR identifier:Help on this term709514
Registration status:Help on this termAustralian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Standard 13/12/2018
Description:Help on this term

Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for opioid medicines per 100,000 population, age-sex standardised.

Indicator set:Help on this termAustralian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018 Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Standard 13/12/2018

Collection and usage attributes

Population group age from:Help on this term

All ages

Computation description:Help on this term

Inclusion codes, description and additional requirements

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

Description (Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

N02A

ASPIRIN + CODEINE

04286N

RPBS. Not included in the specifications used for the Atlas 2015.

BUPRENORPHINE

08865N,

08866P,

08867Q,

10746N,

10755C,

10756D, 10770W,

10948F,

10949G,

10953L,

10957Q,

10959T,

10964C,

10970J

10746N, 10755C, 10756D, 10770W (Listed from 1 May 2016)

10948F, 10949G,

10953L, 10957Q,

10959T, 10964C,

10970J (Palliative care items, listed from 1 Dec 2016 onwards)

CODEINE

05063L

05063L is a dental code

FENTANYL

05265D,

05277R,

05278T,

05279W, 05280X,

05401G,

05402H,

05403J,

05404K,

05405L,

05406M, 05407N,

05408P,

05409Q,

05410R,

05411T,

05412W,

05437E,

05438F,

05439G,

05440H,

05441J,

08878G,

08891Y,

08892B,

08893C,

08894D,

10600X,

10601Y,

10602B,

10603C,

10604D,

10606F,

10607G,

10608H,

10610K,

10611L,

10612M, 10613N, 10684H,

10697B,

10698C, 10713W, 10722H,

10723J,

10729Q,

10737D,

10738E,

10739F

10600X, 10601Y, 10602B, 10603C, 10604D, 10606F, 10607G, 10608H, 10610K, 10611L, 10612M, 10613N

(Palliative care items, listed from 1 Feb 2016 onwards)

10684H, 10697B,

10698C, 10713W, 10722H, 10723J, 10729Q, 10737D, 10738E, 10739F

(Palliative care items, listed from 1 Apr 2016 onwards)

HYDROMORPHONE

05115F,

05116G,

05117H, 05132D, 

08420E, 08421F, 08422G, 08423H, 08424J, 08541M, 08542N, 08543P, 09299K, 09406C, 09407D, 09408E, 09409F

08423H (Listed 1 Aug 2007 – 31 Aug 2016)

METHADONE

01606M, 01609Q,

05399E,

05400F

05399E, 05400F (Palliative care items)

MORPHINE

01607N, 01644M, 01645N,

01646P,

01647Q,

01653B,

01654C,

01655D,

01656E,

02122Q,

02123R,

02124T,

02839K,

02840L,

02841M, 03479D,

03480E,

04349X,

05163R,

05168B,

05169C,

05170D,

05237P,

05238Q,

05239R,

05391R,

05392T,

05393W, 05394X,

05395Y,

05396B,

08035X,

08146R,

08305D,

08306E,

08349K,

08453X,

08454Y,

08489T,

08490W, 08491X,

08492Y,

08493B,

08494C,

08669G,

08670H,

10858L,

10862Q,

10863R,

10864T,

10868B,

10869C,

10874H,

10878M

05391R, 05392T, 05393W, 05394X, 05395Y, 05396B (Palliative care items)

05163R, 05168B, 05169C, 05170D, 05237P, 05238Q,

05239R, 10858L,

10863R are dental codes.

04349X (RPBS)

05392T, 05395Y, 05396B (Listed until 31 May 2016)

10858L, 10862Q, 10863R, 10864T, 10868B, 10869C, 10874H, 10878M (Listed from 1 Aug 2016 onwards)

 

OXYCODONE

02481N,

02622B,

05190E,

05191F,

05194J,

05195K,

05197M, 08385H,

08386J,

08387K,

08388L,

08464L,

08501K,

08502L,

08644Y,

09399Q,

09400R

 

OXYCODONE + NALOXONE

08000C,

08934F,

08935G,

08936H,

10757E,

10758F,

10776E,

11102H,

11111T

10757E, 10758F, 10776E

(Listed from 1 May 2016 onwards)

11102H, 11111T (Listed from 1 May 2017 onwards)

PARACETAMOL + CODEINE

01215Y,

03316M,

04170L,

04171M

04275B,

08785J,

10186D

04170L, 04171M,

04275B, 10186D (RPBS)

10186D (Listed from 1 Dec 2014 onwards)

TAPENTADOL

10091D,

10092E,

10094G,

10096J,

10100N

 

TRAMADOL

02527B,

03484J,

05150C,

05231H,

05232J,

08455B,

08523N,

08524P,

08525Q,

08582Q,

08611F,

08843K

 

R05DA

CODEINE

01214X,

07530H

 

 

Note that drugs used in opioid dependence (N07BC) are excluded. These drugs are not considered consistent with the intent of the indicator. Furthermore, data are not extracted for this ATC group.

Presented as the following rates: 

  1. number of prescriptions per 100,000 population

  2. number of patients per 100,000 population

  3. number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 population per day

Rates are directly age-sex standardised, to the 2001 Australian population, using 5-year age groups: 0-4, 5-9, … , 80-84, 85 and over.

For more information about age-standardisation in general see http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/327276

 

A patient’s age is calculated in years as the difference between the patient’s date of birth and date of supply for the prescription. Date of birth and sex are as reported on a patient’s last prescription for any drug, extracted on 18/04/2018.

Prescriptions are allocated to a financial year based on the date the medicine was supplied to the patient. For example for 2016–17, the date of supply is between 1 July 2016 and 30 June 2017.

Analysis by Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3) 2016 is based on the patient's enrolment postcode as last reported by the patient to Medicare, valid at date of supply.

 

Suppress data (number and rate) if at least one of the following conditions are met:

  • the total denominator is less than 1,000
  • the total numerator is less than 20.

 Age-sex standardised rates are also suppressed where the denominator for at least one of the age-sex groups used to calculate the rate is below 30 and results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the rates are volatile. However, for SA3 data, if the volatility of the rate is not found to have a material impact on its decile, the rate is published with caution. For more information about the sensitivity analysis, see the Technical supplement of the Third Atlas.

Computation:Help on this term

      (a), (b)  [Numerator ÷ Denominator] x 100,000

      (c) ([Numerator x 1,000] ÷ [Denominator x 365])

Numerator:Help on this term

For 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17:

  1. Number of opioid prescriptions dispensed

  2. Number of patients dispensed at least one opioid prescription

  3. Number of DDD of opioid medicines dispensed [mass amount x quantity dispensed ÷ DDD amount]

Numerator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code, ANN(AANN)

PBS and RPBS data 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 extracted on 30/04/2018


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—PBS item prescribed, code NN[NNN]A
Data Element / Data SetPerson—sex, code A
Data Element / Data SetPerson—date of birth, DDMMYYYY
Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—patient identifier, identifier N(9)
Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—date of supply, DDMMYYYY
Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—mass amount, N(14.5)

PBS and RPBS data 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 extracted on 30/04/2018


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—quantity of PBS item supplied, total number N[NNN]
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Denominator:Help on this term

As at 30 June 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

(a), (b), (c)  Total population

Denominator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetPerson—estimated resident population of Australia, total people N[N(7)]
Data Source
ABS Australian Demographic Statistics
Guide for use

Data source type: Census based plus administrative by-product data


Disaggregation:Help on this term

Data are disaggregated by individual year.

(a) SA3 2016 by:

• remoteness (ASGS Remoteness structure 2016) and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA 2016) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD 2016)

Primary Health Network (PHN) 2017

State and territory

 

(b) State and territory

(c) State and territory

 

Disaggregation data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetAddress—Australian postcode, code (Postcode datafile) NNNN
Guide for use

GPO postcodes 2001, 2124, 3001, 4001, 5001, 6843 excluded from the SA3 analysis but included in state/territory and national level analysis.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Used for disaggregation by Statistical Area Level 3.


Data Element / Data SetData Element


Address—statistical area, level 3 (SA3) code (ASGS 2016) NNNNN


Representational attributes

Representation class:Help on this termRate
Data type:Help on this termInteger
Unit of measure:Help on this termService event
Format:Help on this term

(a) Prescription event (b) Person (c) Defined Daily Dose

Data source attributes

Data sources:Help on this term
Data SourceABS Australian Demographic Statistics
Frequency
Quarterly
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics


Accountability attributes

Methodology:Help on this term

Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3s) are geographic areas defined in the ABS Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). The aim of SA3s is to create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of SA2s that have similar regional characteristics. There are 340 spatial SA3s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are designed to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. SA3s generally have a population of between 30,000 and 130,000 people. There are approximately 78 with fewer than 30,000 people and 46 with more than 130,000 as at 30 June 2016. The Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island are each represented by a SA3 in the 2016 ASGS. For further information see the ABS publication, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2016. ABS. cat. no. 3235.0.

The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an internationally accepted classification for presenting and comparing drug usage data. Since 1982, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), located in Norway, has been the central body responsible for coordinating ATC use. Note that the ATC codes used in this specification are from the Australian Department of Health’s version of the WHO ATC classifications, which have some minor differences from the WHO version, based upon a particular drug’s usage in Australia. The Department of Health’s ATC version is available at http://www.pbs.gov.au/browse/body-system.

Further information on DDD/1,000/day is available at http://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/medicines-safety/toolkit_indicators/en/index1.html

DDD amounts are available at https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/

Reporting requirements:Help on this term

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

The Third Australian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018

Organisation responsible for providing data:Help on this term

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Accountability:Help on this term

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Release date:Help on this term11/12/2018

Source and reference attributes

Submitting organisation:Help on this term

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

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