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Australian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018: Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for antimicrobials per 100,000 population, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17

Identifying and definitional attributes

Metadata item type:Help on this termIndicator
Indicator type:Help on this termIndicator
Short name:Help on this termAntimicrobial dispensing, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17
METeOR identifier:Help on this term709488
Registration status:Help on this termAustralian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Standard 13/12/2018
Description:Help on this term

Number of PBS/RPBS prescriptions dispensed for antimicrobials per 100,000 population, age-sex standardised.

Indicator set:Help on this termAustralian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018 Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Standard 13/12/2018

Collection and usage attributes

Population group age from:Help on this term

All ages

Computation description:Help on this term

Inclusion codes, description and additional requirements

Alimentary tract and metabolism

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

A01AB

 

AMPHOTERICIN B

02931G, 03306B

03306B is a dental code

CHLORHEXIDINE

04161B,

04204G

RPBS item.

Not included in the specifications used for the Atlas 2015.

NYSTATIN

03033P, 03343Y,

10854G

03033P, 03343Y (Listed 1 Aug 1991 – 31 Dec 2015)

10854G (Listed from 1 July 2016 onwards, RPBS)

A02BD

 

ESOMEPRAZOLE (&) CLARITHROMYCIN (&) AMOXICILLIN

08738X, 10759G

 10759G (Listed from 1 May 2016 onwards)

OMEPRAZOLE (&) CLARITHROMYCIN (&) AMOXICILLIN

08272J

Delisted after 31 Aug 2014

A07AA

NYSTATIN

01696G, 

01699K, 03342X, 03345C

03342X, 03345C are dental codes

RIFAXIMIN

10001J

Listed from 1 Dec 2013 onwards

VANCOMYCIN

03113W, 03114X

 

 

Dermatologicals

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

D01

 

AMOROLFINE

04010C

RPBS

CICLOPIROX

04106D

RPBS. Delisted after 1 Sep 2017.

CLOTRIMAZOLE

04004R

RPBS

GRISEOFULVIN

01460W,

02982Y

 

KETOCONAZOLE

01574W, 04007X, 

04008Y, 09024Y, 09025B

04007Y, 04008Y (RPBS) 04008Y (Listed 1 Feb 1998 – 30 Nov 2016)

MICONAZOLE

03400Y, 04341L, 

04454K, 

09027D, 

09028E, 09029F, 09031H

04341L, 04454K (RPBS. Delisted after 30 Nov 2016)

 

NYSTATIN

01698J, 04001N

04001N (RPBS)

TERBINAFINE

02285G, 02804N, 04011D, 

04463X, 04473K, 09160D

04011D, 04463X, 04473K (RPBS)

TOLNAFTATE

04481W

RPBS

 

D06AX

MUPIROCIN

04348W, 04350Y

RPBS only

D06BA

SULFADIAZINE SILVER

09479X

 

D11AX

DAPSONE

01272Y,

08801F

Include 01272Y,

08801F only

 

Genitourinary System and Sex Hormones

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

G01AA

NYSTATIN

04013F

RPBS

G01AF

CLOTRIMAZOLE

04016J, 04017K

RPBS

 

Antiinfectives for systemic use (antibacterials)

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

J01

 

 

 

AMOXICILLIN

01884E, 01886G, 01887H, 01888J,

01889K, 03300Q, 03301R, 03302T, 03310F, 03393N, 05225B, 08581P,

08705E, 09714G

 

AMOXICILLIN + CLAVULANIC ACID

01891M, 01892N, 05006L, 05008N, 05009P, 05011R, 08254K, 08319W

 

AMPICILLIN

02390T, 02977Q, 03313J, 03314K

03313J, 03314K are dental codes

AZITHROMYCIN

04115N, 05616N, 06221K, 08200N, 08201P, 08336R

 

BENZATHINE BENZYLPENICILLIN

02267H, 05027N

05027N is a dental code

BENZYLPENICILLIN

01775K, 02647H, 03398W, 03399X, 03486L, 

03487M

03399X is a dental code

CEFACLOR

01169M, 02460L, 02461M, 05045M, 05046N, 05047P

 

CEFEPIME

08315P, 08316Q

 

CEFOTAXIME

01085D, 01086E, 01758M, 01759N, 01768C, 01769D, 05049R, 05048Q,

05049R

01768C, 01769D are dental codes.

01086E (Listed 1 Aug 1991 to 31 Dec 2015)

05049R (Listed 1 Dec 1994 to 31 Dec 2015)

CEFTRIAXONE

01783W,

01784X, 01785Y, 01788D, 09058R

11169W (Listed from 1 Sep 2017 onwards)

 

CEFUROXIME

02002J, 05052X, 05499K, 08292K, 11192C

11191B, 11192C (Listed from 1 Nov 2017 onwards)

 

CEPHALEXIN

02655R, 03058Y, 03094W, 03095X, 03119E, 

03317N, 03318P,
03319Q, 03320R, 10778G

10778G (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

CEPHALOTHIN

02964B, 03376Q

03376Q is a dental code

CEPHAZOLIN

01256D, 01257E, 01797N, 01799Q, 05477G, 05478H, 05479J, 09326W

 

CIPROFLOXACIN

01208N, 01209P, 01210Q

 

CLARITHROMYCIN

05624B, 05625C, 06151R, 06152T, 08318T, 09192T

05625C, 06151R (Listed until 31 Dec 2015)

CLINDAMYCIN

03138E, 05057E

05057E is a dental code

DICLOXACILLIN

05096F, 05097G, 08121K, 08122L, 10790X

10790X (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

DOXYCYCLINE

01800R, 02702F, 02703G, 02707L, 02708M, 02709N, 02711Q,
02714W, 02715X, 03321T, 03322W, 05082L, 09105F, 09106G,
09107H, 09108J, 10176N, 10777F,

10779H, 10781K

10176N (Listed from 1 Dec 2014 onwards)

10777F, 10779H, 10781K (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

ERYTHROMYCIN

01397M, 01404X, 

03325B

10780J

01397M (Listed until 30 Nov 2016)

03325B is a dental code.

10780J (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

ERYTHROMYCIN ETHYLSUCCINATE

02424N, 02428T, 02750R, 03334L, 03336N, 03337P, 10789W

10789W (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

ERYTHROMYCIN LACTOBIONATE

01397M, 05088T

Both delisted after 30 Nov 2016

FLUCLOXACILLIN

01524F, 01525G, 01526H, 01527J, 

05090X, 05091Y, 05094D, 05095E, 05257Q,
05258R, 09149M, 09150N, 10605E, 10609J, 10788T

01524F (Delisted after 31 Dec 2016)

05094D (Listed 1 Dec 1994 – 31 Dec 2016)

05095E is a dental code.

09149M, 09150N (Listed 1 May 2008 – 31 Mar 2016)

10605E, 10609J, (Listed from 1 Feb 2016 onwards)

10788T (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

FUSIDATE

02312Q, 10782L

10782L (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

GENTAMICIN

02824P

 

HEXAMINE HIPPURATE

03124K

 

LINCOMYCIN

02530E, 05144R

05144R is a dental code

METRONIDAZOLE

01621H, 01630T, 01636D, 01638F, 01642K, 01821W,

01832K,
02277W, 02298Y, 03339R, 03341W, 05155H, 

05157K

01638F (Listed 1 Aug 1991 – 31 Jul 2014)

02277W, 02298Y (Listed 1 Feb 2013 – 31 Dec 2016)

 

MINOCYCLINE

01616C

 

NITROFURANTOIN

01692C, 01693D

 

NORFLOXACIN

03010K

 

PHENOXYMETHYLPENICILLIN

01703P, 

01705R, 

01787C, 

01789E,

02965C, 03028J, 03360W, 03361X, 03363B, 03364C, 05012T, 05024K, 05029Q, 08976K, 08977L, 09143F

 

PROCAINE PENICILLIN

01794K, 

03371K, 03485K

 

ROXITHROMYCIN

01760P, 05259T, 05260W, 05261X, 

08016X, 08129W

 

TICARCILLIN + CLAVULANIC ACID

02179Q, 05230G, 10113G, 10125X

02179Q, 05230G (Listed 1 Aug 1991 – 31 Jul 2014)

10113G, 10125X (Listed from 1 Aug 2014 onwards)

TINIDAZOLE

01465D

 

TOBRAMYCIN

01356J, 05442K, 08872Y,
09480Y, 10066T, 10074F

 

TRIMETHOPRIM

02666H, 02922T, 10785P

10785P (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

TRIMETHOPRIM + SULFAMETHOXAZOLE

02951H, 03103H, 

03390K, 

03391L, 10784N

10784N (Listed from 1 Jun 2016 onwards)

VANCOMYCIN

02269K, 02270L, 03130R, 03131T, 03323X, 05083M

 

J02AC

FLUCONAZOLE

01471K, 01472L, 01473M, 01474N, 01475P,

01757L, 05446P

11139G (Out of scope, listed from 1 Jul 2017 onwards)

ITRACONAZOLE

08196J, 10732W

10732W (Listed from 1 Apr 2016 onwards)

POSACONAZOLE

09360P, 10460M

10460M (Listed from 1 Sep 2015 onwards)

VORICONAZOLE

09363T, 09364W, 09452L, 10168E, 10173K, 10198R

10168E, 10173K, 10198R (Listed from 1 Dec 2014 onwards)

J04AB

RIFABUTIN

06195C, 

09541E

 

J04AC

ISONIAZID

01554T

Not included in the specifications used for the Atlas 2015

J04BA

DAPSONE

01272Y

 

RIFAMPICIN

01981G, 01982H, 

01983J, 

01984K, 

08025J

 

 

 

Respiratory

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

R01AX06

MUPIROCIN

09440W

 

 

Sensory (Ophthalmologicals & Otologicals)

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Code

 

Description

(Drug Name)

PBS code (Item Code)

Comments

S01AA

CHLORAMPHENICOL

01171P, 02360F, 05055C, 05511C, 05512D, 11112W

01171P, 02360F, 05055C, 05511C, 05512D (Delisted after 31 Dec 2015)

11112W (Listed from 1 May 2017 onwards)

GENTAMICIN

01441W, 

05566Y

 

TOBRAMYCIN

02328M, 02329N, 05569D, 05570E

 

S01AE

 

CIPROFLOXACIN

01217C, 

02480M, 05564W

 

OFLOXACIN

05567B, 08383F

 

S02AA01

CHLORAMPHENICOL

01172Q

Include 01172Q only (Listed 1 Aug 1991 – 31 May 2015)

S02AA15

CIPROFLOXACIN

02480M

 

S02CA

 

TRIAMCINOLONE + NEOMYCIN SULFATE + GRAMICIDIN + NYSTATIN

02971J, 

02974M

 

DEXAMETHASONE + FRAMYCETIN SULFATE + GRAMICIDIN

02781J

 

S03AA

FRAMYCETIN SULFATE

01440T, 05557L

 

 

 Presented as the following rates: 

  1. number of prescriptions per 100,000 population

  2. number of patients per 100,000 population

  3. number of definded daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 population per day

Rates are directly age-sex standardised, to the 2001 Australian population, using 5-year age groups: 0-4, 5-9, … , 80-84, 85 and over.

For more information about age-standardisation in general see http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/327276

 

A patient’s age is calculated in years as the difference between the patient’s date of birth and date of supply for the prescription. Date of birth and sex are as reported on a patient’s last prescription for any drug, extracted on 18/04/2018.

Prescriptions are allocated to a financial year based on the date the medicine was supplied to the patient. For example for 2016–17, the date of supply is between 1 July 2016 and 30 June 2017.  

Analysis by Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3) 2016 is based on the patient's enrolment postcode as last reported by the patient to Medicare, valid at date of supply.

Suppress data (number and rate) if at least one of the following conditions are met:

  • the total denominator is less than 1,000

  • the total numerator is less than 20.

Age-sex standardised rates are also suppressed where the denominator for at least one of the age-sex groups used to calculate the rate is below 30 and results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the rates are volatile. However, for SA3 data, if the volatility of the rate is not found to have a material impact on its decile, the rate is published with caution. For more information about the sensitivity analysis, see the Technical supplement of the Third Atlas.

Computation:Help on this term

      (a), (b)  [Numerator ÷ Denominator] x 100,000

      (c) ([Numerator x 1,000] ÷ [Denominator x 365])

Numerator:Help on this term

For 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17:

  1. Number of antimicrobial prescriptions dispensed

  2. Number of patients dispensed at least one antimicrobial prescription

  3. Number of DDD of antimicrobial medicines dispensed [mass amount x quantity dispensed ÷ DDD amount]

Numerator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code, ANN(AANN)

PBS and RPBS data 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 extracted on 30/04/2018


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—PBS item prescribed, code NN[NNN]A
Data Element / Data SetPerson—sex, code A
Data Element / Data SetPerson—date of birth, DDMMYYYY
Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—patient identifier, identifier N[N(8)]
Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—date of supply, DDMMYYYY
Data Element / Data SetData Element

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—mass amount, N(14.5)

PBS and RPBS data 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 extracted on 30/04/2018


Data Element / Data SetPharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescription—quantity of PBS item supplied, total number N[NNN]
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data


Data Element / Data SetData Element

Data Element / Data Set
Defined daily dose amount, N(3.3)
Data Source
WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology


Denominator:Help on this term

As at 30 June 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016:

(a), (b), (c)  Total population

Denominator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetPerson—estimated resident population of Australia, total people N[N(7)]
Data Source
ABS Australian Demographic Statistics
Guide for use

Data source type: Census based plus administrative by-product data


Disaggregation:Help on this term

Data are disaggregated by individual year.

(a) SA3 2016 by:

• remoteness (ASGS Remoteness structure 2016) and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA 2016) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD 2016)

Primary Health Network (PHN) 2017

State and territory

(b) State and terriroty

(c) State and territory

 

Disaggregation data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetAddress—Australian postcode, code (Postcode datafile) NNNN
Guide for use

GPO postcodes 2001, 2124, 3001, 4001, 5001, 6843 excluded from the SA3 analysis but included in state/territory and national level analysis.

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Used for disaggregation by Statistical Area Level 3.


Data Element / Data SetData Element

Address—statistical area, level 3 (SA3) code (ASGS 2016) NNNNN


Guide for use



 


Representational attributes

Representation class:Help on this termRate
Data type:Help on this termInteger
Unit of measure:Help on this termService event
Format:Help on this term

NN[NNNN]

 

Data source attributes

Data sources:Help on this term
Data SourceABS Australian Demographic Statistics
Frequency
Quarterly
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics


Accountability attributes

Methodology:Help on this term

Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3s) are geographic areas defined in the ABS Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). The aim of SA3s is to create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of SA2s that have similar regional characteristics. There are 340 spatial SA3s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are designed to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. SA3s generally have a population of between 30,000 and 130,000 people. There are approximately 78 with fewer than 30,000 people and 46 with more than 130,000 as at 30 June 2016. The Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island are each represented by a SA3 in the 2016 ASGS. For further information see the ABS publication, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2016. ABS. cat. no. 3235.0.

The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an internationally accepted classification for presenting and comparing drug usage data. Since 1982, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), located in Norway, has been the central body responsible for coordinating ATC use. Note that the ATC codes used in this specification are from the Australian Department of Health’s version of the WHO ATC classifications, which have some minor differences from the WHO version, based upon a particular drug’s usage in Australia. The Department of Health’s ATC version is available at http://www.pbs.gov.au/browse/body-system

Further information on DDD/1,000/day is available at http://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/medicines-safety/toolkit_indicators/en/index1.html.

DDD amounts are available at https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/

Reporting requirements:Help on this term

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

The Third Australian Atlas of Healthcare Variation 2018

Organisation responsible for providing data:Help on this term

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Accountability:Help on this term

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Release date:Help on this term11/12/2018

Source and reference attributes

Submitting organisation:Help on this term

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

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