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National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 06-Under five mortality rate by leading cause, 2018; Quality Statement

Identifying and definitional attributes

Metadata item type:Help on this termQuality Statement
METeOR identifier:Help on this term689652
Registration status:Help on this termIndigenous, Endorsed 07/02/2018

Relational attributes

Indicators linked to this Quality statement:Help on this term

National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 06-Under five mortality rate by leading cause, 2018 Indigenous, Archived 31/07/2018

National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 06-Under five mortality rate by leading cause, 2019 Indigenous, Endorsed 31/07/2018

Data quality

Institutional environment:Help on this term

The Causes of Death collections are conducted under the Census and Statistics Act 1905. For information on the institutional environment of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), including the legislative obligations of the ABS, financing and governance arrangements, and mechanisms for scrutiny of ABS operations, see ABS Institutional Environment.

Timeliness:Help on this term

Causes of death and perinatal deaths data are published on an annual basis. Death records, including perinatal deaths, are provided electronically to the ABS by individual Registrars on a monthly basis for compilation into aggregate statistics on a quarterly and annual basis.  One dimension of timeliness in death registrations data is the interval between the occurrence and registration of a death. As a result, a small number of deaths occurring in one year are not registered until the following year or later.

Causes of Death data are published annually 9 months after the end of the reference period. The 2015 Causes of Death dataset has been released approximately six months earlier than usual, allowing more timely access to Australian mortality data. For more information on process changes see A more timely annual collection: changes to ABS processes (Technical Note) in Causes of Death Australia, 2015 (ABS 2016a).

There is a focus on fitness for purpose when causes of death statistics are released. To meet user requirements for accurate causes of death data it is necessary to obtain information from other administrative sources before all information for the reference period is available. This specifically applies to coroner certified deaths, where extra information relating to the death is provided through police, toxicology, autopsy and coronial finding reports. A balance therefore needs to be maintained between accuracy (completeness) of data and timeliness. ABS provides the data in a timely manner, ensuring that all coding possible can be undertaken with accuracy prior to publication.

As coroner certified deaths can have ill-defined causes of death until a case is closed within the coronial system, a revisions process was introduced to enhance the cause of death output for open coroner cases. This process enables the use of additional information relating to coroner certified deaths either 12 or 24 months after initial processing. See Explanatory Notes 55-58 and the  Causes of Death Revisions, 2013 Final Data Technical Note  in Causes of Death, Australia, 2015, for further information on the revision process. 
Causes of Death, Australia, 2016 does not include revised data for the 2015 or 2016 reference periods. The ABS remains committed to the revision of coroner-referred deaths and will release revised data for 2015 reference year in early 2018.  2016 reference year data will be released in early 2019.

Births records are provided electronically to the ABS by individual Registrars on a monthly basis for compilation into aggregate statistics on a quarterly and annual basis.  One dimension of timeliness in birth registrations data is the interval between the occurrence and registration of a birth. As a result, some births occurring in one year are not registered until the following year or even later. This can be caused by either a delay by the parent(s) in submitting a completed form to the registry, or a delay by the registry in processing the birth (for example, due to follow up activity due to missing information on the form, or resource limitations).

Preliminary Estimated resident population (ERP) data is compiled and published quarterly and is generally made available five to six months after the end of each reference quarter. Every year, the 30 June ERP is further disaggregated by sex and single year of age, and is made available five to six months after the end of the reference quarter.  Commencing with data for September quarter 2006, revised estimates are released annually and made available 21 months after the end of the reference period for the previous financial year, once more accurate births, deaths and net overseas migration data becomes available. In the case of births and deaths, the revised data is compiled on a date of occurrence basis. In the case of net overseas migration, final data is based on actual traveller behaviour.  Final estimates are made available every 5 years after a census and revisions are made to the previous inter-censal period. Generally ERP data is not changed once it has been finalised unless there are compelling reasons to do so, as in June 2013 when data from September 1991 to June 2006 was revised (for more information on this recasting process, see the feature article titled Recasting 20 years of ERP in the December quarter 2012 issue of Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS 2013).

For further information on ABS ERP, see the relevant Data Quality Statement.

Accessibility:Help on this term

Causes of death data are available in a variety of formats on the ABS website under the 3303.0 product family. Perinatals deaths are currently available in 3303.0.  Births data are available in a variety of formats on the ABS website under the 3301.0 product family. ERP data is available in a variety of formats on the ABS website under the 3101.0 and 3201.0 product families.  Further information on deaths and mortality may be available on request. The ABS observes strict confidentiality protocols as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905. This may restrict access to data at a very detailed level.

Interpretability:Help on this term

In 2014, the ABS implemented Iris, a new automated coding software product for assisting in the processing of cause of death data. This software has been used to code the 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 cause of death data provided in this supply. With the introduction of Iris, the ABS also implemented the most up to date versions of the ICD-10 when coding 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 data (using the 2013 and 2015 versions, respectively), and improved a number of coding practices to realign with international best practice. Please see Technical Note 1, ABS Implementation of the Iris Software: Understanding Coding and Process Improvements, in Causes of Death, Australia, 2013 (cat. no. 3303.0) for further details.

As part of the update process, the ABS reviewed its method of coding perinatal deaths which, for the 2013 and 2014 data published in this supply, has meant a change to the method used for assigning an underlying cause of death to neonatal deaths. Please see Technical Note 1, Changes to Perinatal Death Coding in Causes of Death, Australia, 2014 (cat. no. 3303.0) for further details.

Data for this indicator have been presented as crude rates, either per 1,000 all births, per 1,000 live births or per 100,000 estimated resident population.

Relevance:Help on this term

The ABS Causes of Death and Perinatal Deaths collections include all deaths that occurred and were registered in Australia, including deaths of persons whose usual residence is overseas. Deaths of Australian residents that occurred outside Australia may be registered by individual Registrars, but are not included in ABS deaths or causes of death statistics.

Data in the Causes of Death and Perinatal Deaths collections include demographic items, as well as causes of death information, which is coded according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). ICD is the international standard classification for epidemiological purposes and is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of cause of death statistics. The classification is used to classify diseases and causes of disease or injury as recorded on many types of medical records as well as death records. The ICD has been revised periodically to incorporate changes in the medical field. The 10th revision of ICD (ICD-10) has been used by the ABS to code cause of death since 1997.

The ABS Births collection includes all births that are live born and have not been previously registered, births to temporary visitors to Australia, births occurring within Australian Territorial waters, births occurring in Australian Antarctic Territories and other external territories, births occurring in transit (i.e. on ships or planes) if registered in the state or territory of "next port of call", births to Australian nationals employed overseas at Australian legations and consular offices and births that occurred in earlier years that have not been previously registered (late registrations). Births data exclude fetal deaths, adoptions, sex changes, legitimations and corrections, and births to foreign diplomatic staff. Up until 1 July 2016, births and deaths of Norfolk Island residents were counted in 'External Territories' and therefore not included in Australian birth counts. However, from 2016 births of Norfolk Island residents will be counted in 'Other Territories' and therefore will be included in Australian birth statistics.

For further information on the ABS Causes of Death, Perinatal Deaths and Births collections, see the relevant Data Quality Statements.

Accuracy:Help on this term

Information on causes of death and perinatal deaths is obtained from a complete enumeration of deaths registered during a specified period and are not subject to sampling error. However, causes of death and perinatal deaths data sources are subject to non-sampling error which can arise from inaccuracies in collecting, recording and processing the data.

Concerns have been raised with the accuracy of the New South Wales (NSW) births counts in recent years. In response to these concerns the ABS, in conjunction with the NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, has undertaken an investigation which has led to the identification of an ABS systems processing error. The ABS acknowledges that this has resulted in previous undercounts of births in NSW. Data for NSW and Australia have been revised to include previously unprocessed NSW birth registrations for the period 2005 to 2011.

Although it is considered likely that most deaths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are registered, a proportion of these deaths are not registered as Indigenous. Information about the deceased is supplied by a relative or other person acquainted with the deceased, or by an official of the institution where the death occurred and may differ from the self-identified Indigenous origin of the deceased.

The ABS Death Registrations collection identifies a death as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander where the deceased is recorded as Aboriginal, Torres Strait islander, or both on the Death Registration Form (DRF). The Indigenous status is also derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD) for South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. For 2015 data, the Queensland Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages also used MCCD information for the first time to derive Indigenous status. This resulted in a noticeable decrease in the number of deaths for which the Indigenous status was 'not stated' and an increase in the number of deaths identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in Queensland.

Causes of death statistics are released with a view to ensuring that they are fit for purpose when released. Supporting documentation for causes of death statistics are published and should be considered when interpreting the data to enable the user to make informed decisions on the relevance and accuracy of the data for the purpose the user is going to use those statistics. To meet user requirements for timely data it is often necessary to obtain information from the administrative source before all information for the reference period is available (e.g. finalisation of coronial proceedings). A balance needs to be maintained between accuracy (completeness) of data and timeliness, taking account of the different needs of users.

All coroner certified deaths registered after 1 January 2006 are now subject to a revisions process. In this round of Council of Australian Governments (COAG) reporting, 2011, 2012 and 2013 data is final, 2014 data is revised and 2015 and 2016 data is preliminary. Data for 2014, 2015 and 2016 is subject to further revisions.  Prior to 2006 all ABS processing of causes of death data for a particular reference period was finalised approximately 13 months after the end of the reference period. Where insufficient information was available to code a cause of death (e.g. a coroner certified death was yet to be finalised by the Coroner), less specific ICD codes were assigned as required by the ICD coding rules. The revision process enables the use of additional information relating to coroner certified deaths, as it becomes available over time. This results in increased specificity of the assigned ICD-10 codes.

Revisions will only impact on coroner certified deaths, as further information becomes available to the ABS about the causes of these deaths. See Causes of Death Revisions, 2012 and 2013 (Technical Note) in Causes of Death, Australia, 2014 (ABS 2016b). See Technical Note: Causes of Death Revisions 2013 Final Data in Causes of Death, Australia, 2015 (cat.no. 3303.0).  The ABS remains committed to revisions of coroner-referred deaths, including the revision of the 2014 and 2015 reference periods. Releases of revised data for these periods will occur in early 2018.

Deaths registered on Norfolk Island from 1 July 2016 are included for the first time in this round of reporting. This is due to the introduction of the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015. Norfolk Island deaths are included in statistics for "Other Territories" as well as totals for all of Australia. Deaths registered on Norfolk Island prior to 1 July 2016 were not in scope for death statistics. See Explanatory Note 13 in Causes of Deaths, Australia, 2016 (cat. no. 3303.0) for more information.   Prior to 1 July 2016, deaths of people that occurred in Australia with a usual residence of Norfolk Island were included in Australian totals, but assigned a usual residence of 'overseas'. With the inclusion of Norfolk Island as a territory of Australia in the ASGS 2016, those deaths which occurred in Australia between January and June 2016 with a usual residence of Norfolk Island were allocated to the Norfolk Island SA2 code instead of the 'overseas' category.

All ERP data sources are subject to non-sampling error. Non-sampling error can arise from inaccuracies in collecting, recording and processing the data. In the case of Census and Post Enumeration Survey (PES) data every effort is made to minimise reporting error by the careful design of questionnaires, intensive training and supervision of interviewers, and efficient data processing procedures. The ABS does not have control over any non-sampling error associated with births, deaths and migration data. For more information see the Demography Working Paper 1998/2 - Quarterly birth and death estimates, 1998 (ABS 1999) and Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS 2016c).

Non-Indigenous estimates are available for census years only. In the intervening years, Indigenous population projections are based on assumptions about past and future levels of fertility, mortality and migration.  In the absence of non-Indigenous population figures for these years, it is possible to derive denominators for calculating non-Indigenous rates by subtracting the projected Indigenous population from the total population. In the present tables, non-Indigenous population estimates have been derived by subtracting the 2011 Census-based Indigenous population estimates/projections from the 2011 Census-based total persons ERP. Such figures have a degree of uncertainty and should be used with caution, particularly as the time from the base year of the projection series increases. Total population estimates for 2013, used in the calculation of non-Indigenous comparison rates, are preliminary estimates.

Non-Indigenous data from the Causes of Death collection and Perinatal collection do not include death registrations with a ‘not stated’ Indigenous status.

Some rates are unreliable due to small numbers of deaths over the reference period. Resultant rates could be misleading for example where the non-Indigenous mortality rate is higher than the Indigenous mortality rate for some causes. Age-specific death rates based on a very low death count have been deemed unpublishable. Some cells may also not be published to prevent back-calculation of these suppressed cells. Caution should be used when interpreting rates for this indicator.

Coherence:Help on this term

The methods used to construct the indicator are consistent and comparable with other collections and with international practice.

Data products

Implementation start date:Help on this term25/01/2017

Source and reference attributes

Submitting organisation:Help on this term

Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Reference documents:Help on this term

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 1999.  Demography Working Paper 1998/2 - Quarterly Birth and Death Estimates, 1998. ABS Cat. no. 3114.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2013. Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2012. ABS Cat. no. 3101.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2015. Causes of Death, Australia, 2013. ABS Cat. no. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2016a. Causes of Death Australia, 2015. ABS Cat. no. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2016b. Causes of Death, Australia, 2014. ABS Cat no. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2016c. Australian Demographic Statistics, Jun 2016. ABS Cat. no. 3101.0. Canberra: ABS.

Relational attributes

Related metadata references:Help on this term

Supersedes National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 06-Under five mortality rate by leading cause, 2015-16; Quality Statement Indigenous, Archived 07/02/2018

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