Australian Government: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare METeOR Home Page

National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 10-Mortality rates (and excess deaths) by leading causes for children under 5, 2012

Identifying and definitional attributes

Metadata item type:Help on this termIndicator
Indicator type:Help on this termIndicator
Short name:Help on this termPI 10-Mortality rates (and excess deaths) by leading causes for children under 5, 2012
METeOR identifier:Help on this term438617
Registration status:Help on this termIndigenous, Archived 13/06/2013
Description:Help on this term

There are two measures for this indicator:

Measure (1a): Mortality rates for children aged less than five years, by leading causes of death (ICD-10 chapter level), by Indigenous status

and

Measure (1b): Excess deaths for Indigenous children aged less than five years, by leading causes of death (ICD-10 chapter level).

Rationale:Help on this termHigh level of public interest. Key measure for the 'Closing the Gap' indicator of halving the gap in mortality rates for children under 5.
Indicator set:Help on this termNational Indigenous Reform Agreement (2012) Indigenous, Archived 13/06/2013
Outcome area:Help on this termIndigenous children have the same health outcomes as other Australian children Indigenous, Endorsed 21/07/2010
Quality statement:Help on this termNational Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 10-Mortality rates (and excess deaths) by leading causes for children under 5, 2012 QS Indigenous, Archived 13/06/2013

Collection and usage attributes

Population group age to:Help on this term

This indicator uses a number of different population group age bands:

  • For perinatal: 28 days of birth or less (refer to definition under computation)
  • For infants: Less than 1 year of age
  • For children aged 1-4 years: Less than 5 years of age
  • For children aged 0-4 years: Less than 5 years of age.
Computation description:Help on this term

Rates are calculated for Indigenous and non-Indigenous.

Rate ratios and rate differences are calculated for Indigenous: non-Indigenous.

Note: Causes of death to be listed from highest to lowest Indigenous percentage for the most recent period (5 years combined).

Excludes deaths where Indigenous status was not stated.

Presentation:

(1a): Number; percentage; rate per 1,000 of all births (perinatal); rate per 1,000 live births (infant); rate per 100,000 persons (children 1-4 and children 0-4); rate ratio and rate difference.

(1b): Excess deaths: Number (observed, expected, excess) and percentage (per cent of excess deaths).

Note: causes to be listed from highest to lowest Indigenous percentage.

Definitions:

‘Perinatal mortality’ is defined as death of an infant within 28 days of birth (neonatal death) or of a fetus (unborn child) of at least 20 completed weeks of gestation or with a birth weight of at least 400 grams.

‘Leading causes of death’ are ICD-10 codes used for leading causes of death in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework:

Perinatal mortality:

Main condition in the fetus/infant

  • Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth (P05-P08)
  • Respiratory and cardiovascular disorders specific to the perinatal period (P20-P29)
  • Infections specific to the perinatal period (P35-P39)
  • Other conditions originating in the perinatal period (P10-P15 and P50-P96)
  • Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99)
  • Other conditions
  • Total deaths

Main condition in the mother, fetus and newborn affected by:

  • Maternal conditions that may be unrelated to present pregnancy (P00)
  • Maternal complications of pregnancy (P01)
  • Complications of placenta, cord and membranes (P02)
  • Other complications of labour and delivery and noxious influences transmitted via placenta or breast milk (P03-P04)
  • Total deaths

Infant mortality:

  • Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99)
  • Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99)
  • Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99)
  • Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P00-P96)
  • Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99)
  • Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R99)      

        Sudden infant death syndrome (R95)

  • External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
  • Other causes
  • All causes

Child 1-4 mortality:

  • Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R99)
  • Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99)
  • External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
  • Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99)
  • Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99)
  • Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99)
  • Other Causes
  • All causes

Child 0-4 mortality:

  • Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99)
  • Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99)
  • Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99)
  • Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P00-P96)
  • Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99)
  • Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R99)
  • External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
  • Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99)
  • Other causes
  • All causes
Computation:Help on this term

(1a):

Percentage: number of deaths by cause divided by total deaths

Perinatal and infant mortality rates: 1,000 x (Numerator÷ Denominator)

Children 1-4 and 0-4 mortality rates: 100,000 x (Numerator÷ Denominator)

Rate ratio: Indigenous rate divided by non-Indigenous age standardised rate

Rate difference: Indigenous rate minus non-Indigenous rate

(1b):

Excess deaths: Observed number of Indigenous deaths among perinatal, infants, children aged 1-4 years and children aged 0-4 years less expected number of deaths among Indigenous children of the corresponding age group if the age specific rate of the non-Indigenous population for the corresponding period was applied to the Indigenous population.

Numerator:Help on this term

Perinatal: Number of perinatal deaths (foetal and neo-natal)

Infant: Number of deaths among children aged less than 1 year

Children 1-4: Number of deaths among children aged 1 to 4 years

Children 0-4: Number of deaths among children aged 0 to 4 years
Numerator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetBirth—birth status, code N
Data Source
ABS Perinatal Deaths Collection
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Perinatal numerator data source
Data Element / Data SetData Element
Number of foetal and neo-natal deaths
Data Source
ABS Perinatal Deaths Collection
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Perinatal numerator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—date of birth, DDMMYYYY
Data Source
ABS Causes of Death Collection
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Infant and child numerator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—date of death, DDMMYYYY
Data Source
ABS Causes of Death Collection
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Infant and child numerator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—age, total years N[NN]
Data Source
ABS Causes of Death Collection
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Infant and child numerator data source
Denominator:Help on this termPerinatal: Number of all births (including live births, and stillbirths of at least 20 completed weeks of gestation or with a birth weight of at least 400 grams).

Infant: Number of live births

Children 1-4: Population aged 1-4 years

Children 0-4: Population aged 0-4 years
Denominator data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetBirth—birth status, code N
Data Source
ABS birth registration data
Guide for use

Data source type: Administrative by-product data

Perinatal denominator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—estimated resident population of Australia, total people N[N(7)]
Data Source
ABS Estimated resident population (total population)
Guide for use

Data source type: Estimated resident population (ERP) is derived from Census, Post-enumeration survey (PES) and estimates of fertility, mortality, net migration, etc.

Children aged 1-4 years and 0-4 years denominator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—age, total years N[NN].N
Data Source
ABS Estimated resident population (total population)
Guide for use

Data source type: ERP is derived from Census, PES and estimates of fertility, mortality, net migration, etc.

Children aged 1-4 years and 0-4 years denominator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—estimated resident population of Australia, total people N[N(7)]
Data Source
ABS Indigenous experimental estimates and projections (2001 Census-based)
Guide for use

Data source type: ERP is derived from Census, PES and estimates of fertility, mortality, net migration, etc.

Children aged 1-4 years and 0-4 years denominator data source
Data Element / Data SetPerson—age, total years N[NN]
Data Source
ABS Indigenous experimental estimates and projections (2001 Census-based)
Guide for use

Data source type: ERP is derived from Census, PES and estimates of fertility, mortality, net migration, etc.

Children aged 1-4 years and 0-4 years denominator data source
Disaggregation:Help on this term

Measure 1a)

Current period - 2005-2009:

For Indigenous and non-Indigenous (numbers, rates, percentage, rate ratios, and rate differences):

  • National by leading cause of death including total (ICD-10 chapter level and some sub-chapter level) by age group (perinatal, infant, child aged 1-4 years, and child aged 0-4 years), by Indigenous status.

Measure 1b)

For Indigenous only (number -observed, expected, excess; and per cent of excess deaths):

  • National by leading cause of excess deaths (ICD-10 chapter level) for child aged 0-4 years.
Disaggregation data elements:Help on this term
Data Element / Data SetPerson—geographic location, code (ASGC 2008) NNNNN
Data Source
ABS Perinatal Deaths Collection
Guide for use
Data source type: Administrative by-product data
Data Element / Data SetPerson—underlying cause of death, code (ICD-10 2nd edn) ANN-ANN
Data Source
ABS Perinatal Deaths Collection
Guide for use
Data source type: Administrative by-product data
Data Element / Data SetPerson—Indigenous status, code N
Data Source
ABS Perinatal Deaths Collection
Guide for use
Data source type: Administrative by-product data
Data Element / Data SetPerson—area of usual residence, geographical location code (ASGC 2008) NNNNN
Data Source
ABS Causes of Death Collection
Guide for use
Data source type: Administrative by-product data
Data Element / Data SetPerson—underlying cause of death, code (ICD-10 2nd edn) ANN-ANN
Data Source
ABS Causes of Death Collection
Guide for use
Data source type: Administrative by-product data
Data Element / Data SetPerson—Indigenous status, code N
Data Source
ABS Causes of Death Collection
Guide for use
Data source type: Administrative by-product data
Comments:Help on this term

Most recent data available for 2012 CRC report is 2009.

Data are by reference year.

Aggregated data (2005-2009) will be reported for the current reporting period.

Single year data for children aged under 5 years by leading cause of death are not required as the data are too small to identify trends. The CRC may reconsider this for future reports.

Disaggregation by Indigenous status will be based on data only from jurisdictions for which the quality of Indigenous identification is considered acceptable.

At this stage, only selected states and territories (NSW, Qld, WA, SA and NT) are considered of accepted quality for reporting Indigenous deaths for all ages.

National rates should include these five states and territories only.

Indigenous child and particularly infant mortality data is subject to high variability due to small numbers of deaths among children aged 0 to 4 years.

Due to small number of Indigenous deaths reported each year, 5 year combined data are recommended for reporting for the current reporting period. Disaggregation by leading causes of death is recommended to be reported at the national level only and not by state/territory due to small numbers.

Baseline year for NIRA target (Halve the child mortality gap within a decade) is 2008; baseline year for this indicator is 2008; target year is 2018.

Representational attributes

Representation class:Help on this termRate
Data type:Help on this termReal
Unit of measure:Help on this termPerson
Format:Help on this termN[NN].N

Indicator conceptual framework

Framework and dimensions:Help on this termDeaths

Data source attributes

Data sources:Help on this term
Data SourceABS Perinatal Deaths Collection
Frequency
Annual
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics



Data SourceABS Causes of Death Collection
Frequency
Annual
Quality statement
ABS causes of death collection, QS
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics



Data SourceABS birth registration data
Frequency
Annual
Data custodian

Australian Bureau of Statistics



Data SourceABS Estimated resident population (total population)
Frequency
Quarterly
Quality statement
ABS Estimated resident population (total population), QS
Data custodian
Australian Bureau of Statistics

Data SourceABS Indigenous experimental estimates and projections (2001 Census-based)
Frequency
Periodic
Quality statement
ABS Indigenous experimental estimates and projections, QS
Data custodian
Australian Bureau of Statistics

Accountability attributes

Organisation responsible for providing data:Help on this termAustralian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).
Further data development / collection required:Help on this term

Specification: Long-term.

Improve the quality of Indigenous identification in deaths data.

Source and reference attributes

Steward:Help on this termNational Indigenous Reform Agreement Performance Information Management Group

Relational attributes

Related metadata references:Help on this term

See also National Healthcare Agreement: PB 09-Halve the mortality gap for Indigenous children under five within a decade, 2012 Health, Superseded 25/06/2013, Indigenous, Endorsed 11/09/2012

See also National Healthcare Agreement: PI 19-Infant and young child mortality rate, 2012 Health, Superseded 25/06/2013

Has been superseded by National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 06-Under five mortality rate by leading cause, 2013 Indigenous, Archived 13/12/2013

Supersedes National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 10-Mortality rates (and excess deaths) by leading causes for children under 5, 2011 Indigenous, Archived 01/07/2012

My items Help on this term
Download Help on this term