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OECD Social Indicators>Self-sufficiency


People's self-sufficiency mainly depends on access to jobs and on their skills. With respect to work, a suitable indicator of labour market outcomes is the employment rate for the working-age population. This indicator, based on comparable labour force survey definitions, is available yearly for all OECD countries. Relative to other measures of labour market slack like unemployment rates, the employment rate is less affected by people's decisions to withdraw from the labour market when job prospects are poor.

Dimensions of this framework

  • Age of labour force exit

    Retirement is associated with cessation of work and receipt of a pension. Actual retirement ages are difficult to measure directly without internationally comparable longitudinal data, so international comparisons must rely on indirect measures from cross-sectional data. Indirect measures regard persons above a specified age as "retired" if they are not in the labour force at the time of a survey.
  • Childcare

    Childcare enrolment rates for children aged 0-2 years include enrolment in formal arrangements such as childcare centres, registered child minders, as well as care provided by someone who is not a family member. Enrolment rates for children aged 3-5 years refer to those enrolled in formal pre-school services, and in some countries for children aged 4-5 years in primary schools.
  • Employment

    A person is employed if working for pay, profit or family gain for at least one hour per week, even if temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays or industrial disputes. The data from labour force surveys of OECD countries rely on this definition during a survey reference week. The basic indicator for employment is the proportion of the working-age population aged 15-64 who are employed.
  • Not in employment, education or training

    This indicator records those aged 15-19 years not in education,employment or training as a proportion of the population of the same age group . Education includes part-time and full-time education and excludes non-formal and very short duration education.
  • Spending on education

    Spending on education as a proportion of net national income (NNI) gives a measure of how much money is invested in human capital (it excludes consideration of parental time inputs or on-the-job learning or training) relative to the total flow of monetary resources available to the society. This indicator measures both public and private expenditure on educational institutions (including public subsidies) and family spending in so far as it translates into payments to educational institutions.
  • Student performance

    Student performance can be assessed through results form the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). PISA is the most comprehensive international effort to measure the skills of students towards the end of the period of compulsory education.
  • Unemployment

    The unemployment rate is the ratio of people out of work and actively seeking it to the population of working age (15-64 years old) either in work or actively seeking it. The data are gathered through labour force surveys of OECD member countries.