Person—kidney damage marker, protein/creatinine ratio N[NN].N
Identifying and definitional attributes
|Metadata item type:||Data Element|
|Short name:||Kidney damage marker (urine protein/creatinine ratio)|
The ratio of protein to creatinine in a person's urine, used to detect kidney damage, measured in milligrams per millimole.
Public health, health care and clinical settings.
|Data Element Concept:||Person—kidney damage marker|
Value domain attributes
|Maximum character length:||4|
|Unit of measure:||Milligram per millimole (mg/mmol)|
|Unit of measure precision:||1|
Data element attributes
Collection and usage attributes
|Guide for use:|
Testing the urine protein level is used to evaluate kidney function by detecting elevated protein in the urine (proteinuria). Urine protein/creatinine ratio (PCR) tests assess single urine samples to detect both the total protein and creatinine (a byproduct of muscle metabolism which is normally released into the urine at a constant rate). The urine total protein level varies throughout the day with more or less liquid being released in addition to the body's waste products. The urine PCR tests assess urine creatinine levels in conjunction with total protein which allows the measurement to be corrected for urine concentration.
The preferred method for assessment of kidney damage in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals is urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) measurement in a first-void (first morning) spot specimen. Urinary PCR has also shown to be effective in detecting risk markers for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is recommended for conditions which result in excessive excretion of non-albumin proteins in the urine. A positive test should be repeated to confirm persistence of elevated protein. CKD is present if 2 out of 3 tests (including the initial test) are positive. If the first positive urine specimen is a random spot test (as it may be for opportunistic testing), then repeat tests should ideally be first morning void specimens.
Laboratory findings for urine PCR tests are reported as the ratio of protein to creatinine measured in milligrams per millimole.
Urine protein level can be used to detect kidney damage and increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk. Urine protein levels which are higher than laboratory reference ranges are used to determine kidney damage. The reference range for determining proteinuria using PCR can be found in the Kidney Health Australia Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (KHA-CARI) CKD guidelines.
Source and reference attributes
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)
Kidney Health Australia (KHA) 2012. Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (CARI) Guidelines. Diagnosis, classification and staging of chronic kidney disease. Sydney: KHA. Viewed 20 October 2015, http://www.cari.org.au/CKD
|Related metadata references:|
See also Person—kidney damage marker (urine albumin level), total milligrams per 24 hours N[NNN].N
See also Person—kidney damage marker (urine protein level), total milligrams per 24 hours N[NNN].N
See also Person—kidney damage marker, urine albumin/creatinine ratio N[NN].N
|Implementation in Data Set Specifications:|
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