National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 07-Proportion of babies born of low birth weight, 2015
Identifying and definitional attributes
|Metadata item type:||Indicator|
|Short name:||PI 07-Proportion of babies born of low birth weight, 2015|
The incidence of low birth weight among live-born babies, of mothers by Indigenous status, and among live-born babies by Indigenous status.
|Rationale:||Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of poor health and death during infancy and increased prevalence of a number of chronic diseases in adulthood. Low birth weight is a particular issue for Indigenous Australians.|
|Indicator set:||National Indigenous Reform Agreement (2015)|
Indigenous, Superseded 18/11/2015
|Outcome area:||Indigenous children are born and remain healthy|
Indigenous, Standard 21/07/2010
|Quality statement:||National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 07—Proportion of babies born of low birthweight, 2015, Quality Statement Indigenous, Superseded 07/02/2017|
Collection and usage attributes
Rates are calculated for Indigenous and non-Indigenous.
Rate ratios and rate differences are calculated for Indigenous: non-Indigenous.
For variability bands: variability bands are to be calculated for rates (single year data and for total data for 3 years combined) using the standard method (see definition below).
For trends: percentage change and statistical significance of change is to be calculated (required for reporting of progress over time).
Number, rate per 100 infants (percentage), rate ratio, rate difference and variability bands.
'Low birth weight' is defined as less than 2,500 grams.
Excludes multiple births and stillbirths.
Analysis by state/territory is based on the usual residence of the mother.
Excludes non-residents of external territories and where state/territory of residence was not stated.
Standard method for variability band computation:
Rates derived from administrative data counts are not subject to sampling error but may still be subject to natural random variation, especially for small counts. A 95% confidence interval for an estimate is a range of values which is very likely (95 times out of 100) to contain the true unknown value. Where the 95% confidence intervals of two estimates do not overlap it can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between the two estimates. This is the standard method used in AIHW publications for which formulas can be sourced from Breslow and Day (1987) in the publication ‘Statistical methods in cancer research’. Typically in the standard method, the observed rate is assumed to have natural variability in the numerator count (e.g. deaths, hospital visits) but not in the population denominator count. Also, the rate is assumed to have been generated from a Normal distribution ("Bell curve"). Random variation in the numerator count is assumed to be centred around the true value - i.e. there is no systematic bias.
Rate: 100 x (Numerator ÷ Denominator).
Rate ratio: Indigenous rate divided by non-Indigenous rate.
Rate difference: Indigenous rate minus non-Indigenous rate.
Percentage change: Calculated by multiplying the average annual change over the period by the number of data points less 1. This is then divided by the rate for the first year in the series and multiplied by 100.
The average annual change in rates, rate ratios and rate differences are calculated using linear regression which uses the least squares method to calculate a straight line that best fits the data and returns an array that best describes the line. The simple linear regression line, Y = a + bX, ‘slope’ (b) estimate was used to determine the average annual change in the data over the period. The formula used to calculate the slope estimate and standard error of the slope in Microsoft Excel is:
LINEST: (known_y’s, known_x’s, true) entered as an array formula (Ctrl, Shift, Enter).
Statistical significance of change: The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the standard error of the slope estimate (average annual change) are used to determine whether the apparent increases or decreases in the data are statistically significant at the p<0.05 level. The formula used to calculate the CIs for the standard error of the slope estimate is:
95% CI(x) = x ± 1.96 x SE(x)
where x is the average annual change (slope estimate). If the upper and lower 95% confidence intervals do not include zero, then it can be concluded that there is statistical evidence of an increasing or decreasing trend in the data over the study period.
Variability band: to be calculated using the standard method for estimating 95% confidence intervals as follows:
Where CR = crude rate
n = number of live-born singleton infants with known birthweight
|Numerator:||Number of low birth weight live-born singleton infants.|
|Numerator data elements:|
|Denominator:||Number of live-born singleton infants with known birthweight|
|Denominator data elements:|
Current Period – (2010-2012):
For Indigenous and non-Indigenous (number, rate, rate ratio, rate difference and variability bands):
Time series–2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 (the data for these years have been previously supplied), 2012 (required for 2014 reporting):
For Indigenous and non-Indigenous (number, rate, rate ratio, rate difference, percentage change and variability bands):
For 2011 (the data for this year has been previously supplied), 2012 (required for 2015 reporting).
For Indigenous and non-Indigenous (number, rate, rate ratio, rate difference, and variability bands):
|Disaggregation data elements:|
Most recent data available for 2015 report is 2012.
Aggregated data (2010 to 2012) will be reported for the current reporting period.
Single year data (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) will be reported for time series; noting that previously supplied data will be used unless a resupply is provided.
Information is included in the National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for all live births and still births of at least 400 grams birthweight or at least 20 weeks gestation.
For previous years, Indigenous status of infants was based on the Indigenous status of the mother only. Indigenous status of infants is available from NSW, Vic, Qld, and the NT from 2011.
Disaggregation by Indigenous status is recommended to be reported using three-year combined data for the current reporting period due to the small number of low birthweight infants born to Indigenous mothers each year. Single year data is to be reported for time series.
To report trends, the body assessing progress over time may separately request percentage change and statistical significance testing for this indicator directly from the data provider (AIHW).
Variability bands accompanying perinatal data should be used for the purposes of comparisons over time and for national estimates at a point in time for Indigenous/non-Indigenous comparisons.
Baseline year for NIRA target (Halve the child mortality gap within a decade) is 2008; baseline year for this indicator is 2007; target year is 2018.
|Unit of measure:||Person|
Indicator conceptual framework
|Framework and dimensions:||Health Conditions|
Data source attributes
Calendar years ending 31 December each year
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
|Reporting requirements:||National Indigenous Reform Agreement.|
|Organisation responsible for providing data:||Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.|
|Further data development / collection required:|
A data item for Indigenous status of the baby will be added to the Perinatal NMDS for collection from July 2012 onwards.
Source and reference attributes
|Steward:||National Indigenous Reform Agreement Performance Information Management Group|
|Related metadata references:|
See also National Healthcare Agreement: PI 01-Proportion of babies born of low birth weight, 2014
Supersedes National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 07-Proportion of babies born of low birth weight, 2014
Has been superseded by National Indigenous Reform Agreement: PI 07—Proportion of babies born of low birthweight, 2016
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